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Papuan
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Table of Counting
system
These records are sorted by language type, cycles, province, language,
operative pattern and then frame words. To sort in another way, e.g. by
language, download to Excel and sort. Some languages have more than one
way of counting and so both are included but will be separated into the
cycles. Further information on each language can be found on the languages
database. 
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this table (306KB:Excel
file) 
Language type

Language

Province

Cycles

Operative pattern

Frame pattern

Important Features

Australian 
Mabuiag 
Western 

body part tally 
1 to 10 
Australian language. Small counting
system data suggests a digit tally but also seems to be a body part tally
system to cycle 18 ro 19 
Australian 
Mabuiag 
Western 
2 
digit tally 
1, 2 
Australian language. Small counting system
data suggests a digit tally but also seems to be a body part tally system
to cycle 18 ro 19 
Austronesian 
Penchal 
Manus 

7=103 
1 to 6, 10 
The numerals given are of Manus type with
distinct numerals 1 to 6, and 10. 
Austronesian 
Lenkau 
Manus 

7=103 
1 to 6, 10 
The numerals are typically Manus in nature
with distinct numerals 1 to 6, and 10, with 7, 8, and 9 having the usual
subtractive form. 
Austronesian 
Yamalele 
Milne Bay 



Lack of information to determine system

Austronesian 
Lihir 
New Ireland 



unusual in being 5, 20 cycle; count in groups
of 4s as one group of 4 yams,
half and ordinals 
Austronesian 
Papapana 
North Solomons 
? 

1 to 5?, 10 

Austronesian 
Piva 
North Solomons 
? 

1 to 5?, 10 

Austronesian 
Psohoh 
West New Britain 
? 
? 
? 
5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4 
Austronesian 
WuvuluAua 
Manus 
10 ? 

1 to 10? 
First few numerals shows an unusual and
interesting structure with 6 = 3 twos, 7 = 3x2+1, 8=4x2, 9=4x2+1 
Austronesian 
Likum 
Manus 
10 

1 to 6?10 
The decades in Likum are formed with the
numeral root and the suffix (or class marker) 'noh'. The word for 'hand',
'nime', is not identical to the numeral 5, 'lime(h)'. 
Austronesian 
Kaniet 
Manus 
10 
7=103,etc 
1 to 6, 10 
Diversity in data may suggest numerals come
from different dialects. The numerals for 2, 5, and 10 are not typically
AN. Subtractive process operates for the numerals 7, 8, and 9, and that
there are distinct words for the numerals 1 to 6, and 10. 
Austronesian 
Madak 
New Ireland 
10 
20=2x10, 100=10x10 
1 to 10 
10 cycle, decades, half, prefix for ordinals
like a third 
Austronesian 
Notsi 
New Ireland 
10 
20=2x10, 100=10x10, 17=10+5+2 
1 to 10, 
5 and 10 cycle with decades, 17 = 10+5+2,
100=10x10 
Austronesian 
LavatburaLamusong 
New Ireland 
10 
20=2x10, 50=5x10 
1 to 10 
10 cycle with decades, half, first 
Austronesian 
Bulu 
West New Britain 
10 
20 to 90: 10 x n 
1 to 10 
10 cycle system with regular decades implying
10xn construction 
Austronesian 
Doura 
Central 
10, 100 
6 to 9 =2x3, 2x4,2x4+1 
1 to 5, 7, 10, 100 
Motu numerals in place 140 years ago
10, 100 cycles, with numeral for 7 but otherwise
6, 8, 9 =2x3, 2x4, 2x4+1 
Austronesian 
Gabadi 
Central 
10, 100 
6 to 9 =2x3, 2x4,2x4+1, decades nx10 
1 to 5, 7, 10, 100 
Motu type with numeral for 7.
6 to 9 =2x3, 2x4,2x4+1, decades nx10
counting pigs in 20s, coconuts in 10s, spears in bundles of 10 
Austronesian 
Nara 
Central 
10, 100 
6 to 9 =2x3,2x3+1, 2x4,2x4+1; 
1 to 5, 10, 100 
10, 100 cycles of Motu type, 6 to 9 =2x3,2x3+1,
2x4,2x4+1; Ordinals 
Austronesian 
Roro 
Central 
10, 100 
6 to 9 =2x3,2x3+1, 2x4,2x4+1; 70=50+20 
1 to 5, 10, (40), 100 
10, 100 cycles but Motu type, i.e. 6 to
9 =2x3,2x3+1, 2x4,2x4+1; 70=50+20
Also special word for 40 as well as 50 but it is not used again
Suffix for ordinals 
Austronesian 
Mokerang 
Manus 
10, 100 
7=103, 
1 to 6, 10, 100 
'Manus' type and each numeral (with the
exception of 1) is prefixed with 'ma'. It is a 10cycle or decimal system
with the decades having the construction 'numeral + ngol', e.g. 40 is
'mahangol' where 'maha' is 4. There are distinct words for 100 and
1000 
Austronesian 
Mondropolon 
Manus 
10, 100 
7=103 
1 to 6, 10, 100 
The Mondropolon system is of the 'Manus'
type.The numerals for 10 and 100 are atypical in that they are not constructed
with the 'sa' prefix common to many of the Manus languages.The numeral
20 is also atypical in that it appears to have a '10 x 2' construction
whereas the higher decades have the construction 'numeral root +nuh'.

Austronesian 
SoriHarengan 
Manus 
10, 100 
7=103,etc 
1 to 6, 10, 100 
Typical Manus type with 7 to 9 = 10  3,
102, 101 
Austronesian 
Pak  Tong 
Manus 
10, 100 ? 
7 =103,11=10+1 
1 to 6,10 
Common AN structure with distinct words
for the numerals 1 to 6. 7 to 9 contains the words for 3 down to 1 implying
the use of a subtractive process in forming these three numbers. There
is a distinct word for 10. 
Austronesian 
Baluan  Lou  Pam (Baluan) 
Manus 
10, 100 
7=103,20=2 x10, 
1 to 6, 10, 100 
10 and 100 cycles with 7 to 9 having a typical
subtractive pattern of 3 up to 10, 2 up to 10 etc.
20 = 2 x 10 and 40 mighty be a distinct numeral 
Austronesian 
Baluan  Lou  Pam (Baluan) 
Manus 
10, 100 
7=103,20=2x10 
1 to 6, 10, (40),100 
10 and 100 cycles with 7 to 9 having a typical
subtractive pattern of 3 up to 10, 2 up to 10 etc.
20 = 2 x 10 and 40 mighty be a distinct numeral 
Austronesian 
EreLeleGele'Kuruti 
Manus 
10, 100 
7=103,20=2x10 
1 to 6, 10,100 
The counting systems of Ere, Gele', and
Kuruti are all of the Manus type and probably other dialects too. A particle
in construction of the thousands, Several Kuruti informants indicate a
construction for tens of thousands .
"the numerals exhibit classification, with up to 36 classes in Buyang
(Gele'). 
Austronesian 
Nimowa 
Milne Bay 
10, 100 

1 to 10, 100 
Decades have suffix to numerals for 1 to
9 which are typical AN numerals, including' lima' or 'nima' from 'hand'

Austronesian 
Nimowa 
Milne Bay 
10, 100 ? 
1 to 9 are typical set of an numerals, decade
suffix 
1 to 10, 100 
Decades have suffix to numerals for 1 to
9 which are typical AN numerals, including' lima' or 'nima' from 'hand'

Austronesian 
SudEst 
Milne Bay 
10, 100 ? 
classifiers, typical austronesian numerals

1 to 10, 100 
A large number of classifiers at least 22
indicated by a suffix 
Austronesian 
SudEst 
Milne Bay 
10, 100 ? 
classifiers, typical austronesian numerals

1 to 10, 100 
A large number of classifiers at least 22
indicated by a suffix 
Austronesian 
ErimaMussau 
New Ireland 
10, 100 
20=2*10, 50=5*10 
1 to 10, 100 
10, 100 with decades. Word for half is imprecise
as part so used for third and quarter with number words 
Austronesian 
ErimaMussau 
New Ireland 
10, 100 
20=2x`0, 50=5x10 
1 to 10, 100 
10, 100 with decades. Word for half is imprecise
as part so used for third and quarter with number words 
Austronesian 
Kandas 
New Ireland 
10, 100 
20=2x1=, 5=5x10 
1 to 10, 100 
10 basic counting words 
Austronesian 
Sursurunga 
New Ireland 
10, 100 
20=2x10, 50=5x10 
1 to 10, 100 
regular decades, reasonable similarity for
data collected nearly 400 years ago, a half, and ordinals 
Austronesian 
Tangga 
New Ireland 
10, 100 
20=2x10, 50=5x10 
1 to 10, 100 
regular decades, similarities to other lists
and to data collected 400 years ago 
Austronesian 
Konomala 
New Ireland 
10, 100 
20=2x10, 50=5x10 
1 to 10, 100 
regular decades 
Austronesian 
Siar 
New Ireland 
10, 100 
20=2x10, 50=5x10 
1 to 10, 100 
regular decades, data from 150 years ago
and recent data are similar 
Austronesian 
Label 
New Ireland 
10, 100 
20=2x10, 50=5x10, teens include 10 
1 to 10, 100 
regular decades , teens include a word for
10 not given for 10 
Austronesian 
Nehan 
North Solomons 
10, 100 
20=2x10, 100=10x10 
1 to 10 
Base 10 systems with decades and 10 tens
for a hundred. 
Austronesian 
Nukumanu 
North Solomons 
10, 100 ? 
30=10 x 3; 11 to 20 = 10 + n, 
1 to 10, 100 
Base 10 system, with consistent addition
of 1 to 9 for 11 to 19 and also decades as 30 = 10 x 3, count in pairs

Austronesian 
Takuu 
North Solomons 
10, 100 
30 = 3 x 10 
1 to 10, 100 
Base 10 system with classifiers 
Austronesian 
Petats 
North Solomons 
10, 100 
30= 3 x 10 
1 to 10, 100 
Pure base 10 system 
Austronesian 
Solos 
North Solomons 
10, 100 
30=3x0 
1 to 10, 100, 1000 
Base 10 system with special words for 100
and 1000 with teens and decades clear in newer data 
Austronesian 
Nakanai 
West New Britain 
10, 100 
20 to 90 = 10 x n 
1 to 10, 100 
10, 100 cycles with regular decades 10 x
n where n= 1 to 9 
Austronesian 
Sinagoro 
Central 
10, 100, 1000 
6 to 9 is 2x3, 2x3+1, 2x4, 2x4+1 
1 to 5, 10, 100, 1000 
6 to 9 are both Motu type using 6 to 9 is
2x3, 2x3+1, 2x4, 2x4+1 and 6 to 9 is 5 + n where n is 1 to 4.
Data given on ordinals using possible prefixes and suffixes. Teens and
decades are regular and built on 10 
Austronesian 
Duke Of York 
East New Britain 
10, 100, 1000 
20 to 90: n x 10 
1 to 10, 100, 1000 
1 to 10, 100 and 1000 are distinct words.
Decades, hundreds and thousands are produced by, for example, 3 tens.
Large numbers are the same as Tolai.
Counting systems still in use seem to be 3 although 8 dialects. 
Austronesian 
Duke Of York 
East New Britain 
10, 100, 1000 
20 to 90: n x 10 
1 to 10, 100, 1000 
1 to 10, 100 and 1000 are distinct words.
Decades, hundreds and thousands are produced by, for example, 3 tens.
Large numbers are the same as Tolai.
Counting systems still in use seem to be 3 although 8 dialects. 
Austronesian 
LeveiTulu 
Manus 
10, 100, 1000 
6=104,etc 
1 t0 5,10,100,1000 
The Lebej numeral for 6 is unique among
the Manus systems with subtractive process, instead of having a distinct
word for 6. The corresponding numeral in Chechek is normal, i.e 'o:nah'.
For both dialects the numeral 1, is like Manus rather than West Manus.
Hand and thumb in both dialects is not related to the respective numerals
5: 
Austronesian 
Papitalai 
Manus 
10, 100, 1000 
7=103, 
1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 
'Manus' pattern, the prefix 'mo(a)' for
the numerals 2 to 10 and, by extension, the decades and hundreds. The
decades and hundred are formed by suffixing a numeral root. The cyclic
structure is thus decimal and has the pattern (10,100). 
Austronesian 
Sisi  Bipi 
Manus 
10, 100, 1000 
7=103,etc 
1 to 6, 10, 100 
System is like those at the other end of
the island. Numeral classification appears to operate when counting certain
types of objects, e.g houses, holes, strings, spears, etc; no further
information is provided however. Words for fractions. The word for
'hand' is 'limeu' which appears to be closely related to the word for
5, i.e 'limeh'. 
Austronesian 
Leipon 
Manus 
10, 100, 1000? 
7=103,etc 
1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 
A regular Manus type. The number words are
mainly prefixed with 'ma'. The formation of the decades shows a consistent
pattern, the particle 'ngol' indicating 'ten', The formation of the hundreds
and thousands shows a similar regular construction. Ordinals have sense
of 'foremost' and 'behind, following'. 
Austronesian 
Loniu 
Manus 
10, 100, 1000 
7=103,etc 
1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 
A regular Manus type. A consistent pattern
for the construction of the decades, hundreds and thousands. 
Austronesian 
Nali 
Manus 
10, 100, 1000? 
7=103,etc 
1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 
The usual structure of the Manus type of
counting system. Most numerals have the prefix 'ma'. The particle 'ngui'
is used in the construction of the decades as The particle 'ngat' is
used in the construction of the hundreds, e.g 100 is '(ma)sangat', up
to 1000 which is 'supou'. 
Austronesian 
EreLeleGele'Kuruti 
Manus 
10, 100, 1000 
7=103,etc 
1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 
The counting systems of Ere, Gele', and
Kuruti are all of the Manus type and probably other dialects too. A particle
in construction of the thousands, Several Kuruti informants indicate a
construction for tens of thousands .
"the numerals exhibit classification, with up to 36 classes in Buyang
(Gele'). 
Austronesian 
Andra Hus 
Manus 
10, 100, 1000 
7=103,etc 
1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 
Particles are used for 10s, 100s and 1000s.
Numbers for 1000 and 10 000 can be generated. The numerals 7 to 9 exhibit
the usual subtractive process but show an unusual prefix 'The word for
5, 'limah'.
Classifiers have the construction 'numeral root + class marker'. 
Austronesian 
Ponam 
Manus 
10, 100, 1000 
7=103,etc 
1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 
Regular Manus type of system but has numerals
7, 8, 9 Ordinals were reported by the IMP informant. The first three ordinals
do not appear to derive from the corresponding ordinals but have the meaning
.'front', 'middle', 'behind'. Generally the numerical classifiers have
the structure 'numerical root + class marker' 
Austronesian 
Bohuai 
Manus 
10, 100, 1000 
7=103,etc 
1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 
the 'Manus' type with a Frame Pattern (1
to 6,10,100,1000). The decades are formed by suffixing the numeral root
and is most likely an example of numeral classification Similarly the
suffix 'nak' is most likely the class marker for the class of 'hundreds'
which are thus counted with a numeral root suffixed with this, e.g. 100
is 'ranak', 200 is 'lunak' and so on. 
Austronesian 
LeveiTulu 
Manus 
10, 100, 1000 
7=103,etc 
1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 
The Lebej numeral for 6 is unique among
the Manus systems with subtractive process, instead of having a distinct
word for 6. The corresponding numeral in Chechek is normal, i.e 'o:nah'.
For both dialects the numeral 1, is like Manus rather than West Manus.
Hand and thumb in both dialects is not related to the respective numerals
5: 
Austronesian 
Lindrou 
Manus 
10, 100, 1000 
7=103,etc 
1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 
Manus type system showing the usual subtractive
structure for the numerals 7, 8, and 9. The word for 10, 'ronoh', does
not take the usual AN form 'sangahul', 'sangoul', also in LeveiTulu.
Decades uses the particle 'noh' , hundreds 'nek', e.g 100 is 'rinek',
thousands 'wa(h)' . Regular for computer generation. 
Austronesian 
Titan 
Manus 
10, 100, 1000 
7=103,11=10+1,20=2x10 
1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 
System A is a 10cycle or decimal system
of the Manus type with the numerals 7, 8, and 9 , regular decades, hundreds
and thousands 
Austronesian 
Torau 
North Solomons 
10, 100, 1000 
20=2x10 
1 to 10, 100, 1000 
Base 10 system with a consistent pattern
of decades as multiples of 10 and 100s as multiples. Some sources give
a connective for 11 to 19 when using basic numerals with 10.
There are words for half and ordinals. 
Austronesian 
Nuguria 
North Solomons 
10, 100, 1000 
30=10x3 
1 to 10, 100? 
Decades, and 1000 is 10 hundreds 
Austronesian 
Halia 
North Solomons 
10, 100, 1000 
30 = 3 x 10 
1 to 10, 100, 1000 
Base 10 system with words for a half or
part, and ordinals. 
Austronesian 
Uruava 
North Solomons 
10, 100, 1000 
30=3x10 
1 to 10, 100, 1000 
The base 10 system has connectives of 10
and 1, 10 and 2 for the numbers 11 and so on. The decades follow a consistent
pattern. There are specific words for 100 and 1000. There are words for
ordinals related to the cardinal numbers. 
Austronesian 
Saposa 
North Solomons 
10, 100, 1000 
30=3x10, 11 to 19 = 10 and n 
1 to 10, 100, 1000 
Base 10 system with special words for 100
and 1000 and teens and decades following a clear pattern from recent data
but unavailable from older data 
Austronesian 
Banoni 
North Solomons 
10, 100, 1000 
7 to 8 = x + n, 20 = 10x2 etc 
1 to 5 (9), 10, 100, 1000 
base 10 with some combinations of 1 to 5
to get 7 to 9, decades, distinct words for 100, 1000. There are also numbers
associated with classes such as round things. 
Austronesian 
Motu 
Central 
10, 100, 1000 etc 
6 to 9 =2x3,2x3+1, 2x4, 2x4+1 
1 to 5, 10, 100, 1000, 10000 
Language used as a lingua franca in Papua.
While retaining a 5 cycle system it has the form of 6=2x3, 7=3x3+1, 8=2x4,
9=2x4+1. It has distinct numerals for 10, 100, 1000, 10 000, 100 000.
Prefix used for counting different classes, e.g. men, women, long things,
coconuts, animals. Ordinals obtained by prefixing cardinal numbers for
second etc 
Austronesian 
Siar 
New Ireland 
10, 100 (presumed) 
20=2x10, 50=5x10 (presumed) 
1 to 10, 100 (presumed) 
regular decades, data from 150 years ago
and recent data are similar 
Austronesian 
Misima 
Milne Bay 
10 or 5, 10 
decades of elulu + n (1 to 5) 
1 to 10 or 15, 10 
Decades clearly given 
Austronesian 
Misima 
Milne Bay 
10 or 5, 10 
decades of elulu + n (1 to 5) 
1 to 10 or 15, 10 
Decades clearly given 
Austronesian 
Middle Watut 
Morobe 
2 
numeral set 
1, 2 
1, 2 numeral set with 5=2+2+1, 6=2+2+2,
but other record of hand and foot morphemes being used 
Austronesian 
Roinji 
Morobe 
2, 10, 20 
7 = 2+2+2+1; 10=5x2 
1, 2, 10, 20 
4=2+2, paired counting 
Austronesian 
Tomoip 
East New Britain 
2, 5 
3 = 2' + 1' : 4 = 2' + 2' 
1,2, 5, 20 
2, 5, 20 cycle system 
Austronesian 
Matukar 
Madang 
2', 5 
digit tally, 4=2+2 
1,2,3,5 
Digit tally system with words for 1, 2,
3 and 5; 4= 2+2 
Austronesian 
Sera 
Sandaun 
2, 5 ? 



Austronesian 
Sissano 
Sandaun 
2, 5 ? 
? 
1, 2 

Austronesian 
Mari 
Madang 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5, 20 cycles . 2 cycle system is unusual
in an Austronesian language but some in nearby Morobe 
Austronesian 
Dawawa 
Milne Bay 
2, 5, 20 ? 
3=2+1, 4=2+2, 5= hand, 10=2 hands 
1, 2, 5, 20? 
2, 5, 20 cycles with numerals for 1, 2 ,
5, 20
3=2+1, 4=2+2, 5= hand, 10=2 hands 
Austronesian 
Wedau 
Milne Bay 
2', 5, 20 
4=2+2, 10 is 2 hands, 20 is man 
1 to 3, 5, 20 
2, 5, 20 cycles forming digit tally system

Austronesian 
Boianaki 
Milne Bay 
2', 5, 20 ? 
4=2+2, hand in 5, 10=5x2, 6 to 9=x+n 
1 to 3, 5, 20 
distinct numerals for 1 to 3 so modified
2 cycle, 5 and 20 to form an AN digit tally
4=2+2, hand in 5, 10=5x2, 6 to 9=X+n 
Austronesian 
Anuki 
Milne Bay 
2', 5, 20 
4=2x2, 5 and 10 seem to use hand morphs

1 to 3, 5, 20 
modified 2 cycle, 5 and 20
4=2x2, 5 and 10 seem to use hand morphs 
Austronesian 
Igora 
Milne Bay 
2, 5, 20 ? 
9=2+2+5, 6 to 9 = n + x 
1, 2, 5, 20? 
2, 5, and possibly 20 cycle 
Austronesian 
Vehes 
Morobe 
2', 5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1, 2, 3, 4, 20? 
digit tally with modified 2 cycle and 5
and an implied 20 cycle but insufficient data to confirm this 
Austronesian 
Mumeng 
Morobe 
2', 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 3, 5, 20 
A modified 2 cycle with continuing 5, 20
cycles of a digit tally system. There are slight variations between dialects
so a hand in one dialect is half implying half of the two hands. 
Austronesian 
Mapos Buang 
Morobe 
2', 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 3, 5, 20 
2', 5, 20 cycle digit tally system with
hand and foot morphemes 
Austronesian 
Manga Buang 
Morobe 
2', 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 3, 5, 20 
2', 5, 20 digit tally system without the
apparent use of leg morpheme in 15 and 20 is person complete 
Austronesian 
Wampur 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5, 20 cycle digit tally with unusual
reduplication for 2 with 4 being the single repeated after another morpheme

Austronesian 
Sukurum 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 

Austronesian 
Sirasira 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5, 20 cycle digit tally system with 2
cycle persisting for 5 in some data sets 
Austronesian 
North Watut 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5, 20 cycle digit tally system 
Austronesian 
Wampar 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5, 20 cycle with use of hand morpheme
and for 11 to 19 foot morpheme as a typical digit tally system 
Austronesian 
Sirak 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5, 20 cycles in digit tally system with
hand morphemes for 5 to 20 and foot morphemes for 15 and 20 as the toes
are complete on each foot 
Austronesian 
Duwet 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5, 20 cycles in digit tally system with
typical hand morpheme contained in 5 to 20 with a leg morpheme in 15 to
20 
Austronesian 
Musom 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5, 20 cycle with typical use of hand
morphemes from 5 to 20 and foot morphemes from 15 to 20 
Austronesian 
Yalu 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5, 20 digit tally system using hand morphemes
for 5 to 20 and foot morphemes for 15 to 20 
Austronesian 
Lae 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5, 20 
Almost extinct language in 1990. hand morpheme
used in numbers 5 to 20 with a foot morpheme for numbers 11 to 20. Alternate
word for 20 too and 40 is 2 x 20. 
Austronesian 
Piu 
Morobe 
2', 5, 20 
digit tally?, 6 to 9 is 'and 1', 'and 2'
implying hand and 1 etc 
1, 2, 3, 5, 20? 
Implied digit tally for construction of
6 to 9 are implied hand 'and 1', 'and 2' etc 
Austronesian 
South Watut 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally, alternatives 5=2+2+1, 5?, 10?

1, 2, 5 
Digit tally with 2, 5, 20 cycles. Some data
indicate use of hand morphemes from 5 to 20 whereas others suggest 5=2+2+1,
meaning for 5, 10 unknown 
Austronesian 
Adzera 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally from 10; 1 to 9 combine 1 and
2 
1, 2, 5? 
1 to 9 follow a 2 cycle with numbers like
6 being 2+2+2.
After 10, digit tally with tallying as two hands and toes until 20 is
reached as 'my hands two' and 'my feet two' 
Austronesian 
Nenaya 
Morobe 
2, 5 ?, 20 
pair counting. digit tally 
1, 2, 3, (5),20 
2, 20 cycle system with 5 = 2+2+1 but 10
to 19 imply 5 x 2 plus construction 
Austronesian 
Gapapaiwa 
Milne Bay 
2', 5, 20 digit tally 
4=2+2, 7 to 9 = x + n 
1, 2, 3, 5, 20 
modified 2 cycle, 5, and 20 cycles
4=2+2, 7 to 9 = X + N 
Austronesian 
Wogeo 
East Sepik 
4 
8 = 4x2, 12 = 4x3 
1 to 4 
Austronesian language spoken on the islands
with a similar 4 cycle system, One variation was a morpheme plus 4 for
16, seemingly adding on to 3x4 
Austronesian 
Bam 
East Sepik 
4 
8 = 4x2, 12 = 4x3 
1 to 4 
4 cycle system, Austronesian. Uses for 16
and 20 two versions for hand 'vat' for 4 and 'lim' for 5. 
Austronesian 
Ham 
Madang 
4 ?, 5 
digit tally 
1 to 4,5? 
Words for 1 to 4 with 5 = 4 + 1 but then
the use of hand for numbers 6 to 9 suggesting both a 4 cycle and 5 cycle
or some modification over time 
Austronesian 
Kuni 
Central 
5 ? 

1 to 5? 
Insufficient data to confirm as Motu type
as numerals from 6 to 9 are not available 
Austronesian 
Kis 
East Sepik 
5? 
? 
1 to 5 
Insufficient data to determine system 
Austronesian 
Malalamai 
Madang 
5, ? 
10 = 5 x 2 
1 to 5 
5 cycle but insufficient data to say more
than that 10=5x2 
Austronesian 
Medebur 
Madang 
5, ? 
digit tally, (?) 
1 to 5 
1 to 5 numerals but insufficient data to
confirm digit tally system 
Austronesian 
Bilbil 
Madang 
5, ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
digit tally system with 5 cycle and further
cycles are unsure, 6 to 9 is a consistent morpheme + 1 to 4 but it is
not hand morpheme 
Austronesian 
Biliau 
Madang 
5, ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
5 cycle but insufficient data to determine
further cycles 
Austronesian 
Megiar 
Madang 
5 
digit tally (to 10) 
1 to 5 
5 cycle system with hand morphemes and words
to 5 with some suggestion of 10 but not in recent information 
Austronesian 
Bwaidoka 
Milne Bay 
5, 

1 to 5 
5 cycle but lack of information 
Austronesian 
Wataluma 
Milne Bay 
5 
digit tally with 
1 to 5 
5 cycle with counting on hands and feet,The
informant gives an alternative for 12, and an alternative for 24 12 x
2 which suggests that certain objects may be counted in groups of 12;
no further details are given however. 
Austronesian 
Mambu, East Timor 

5, 10 
6 to 9 = 5 + n , n= 1 to 4; decades 
1 to 5, 10 
5, 10 cycles with regular decades 
Austronesian 
Magori 
Central 
5, 10 
6 to 9 is 5 + n where n is 1 to 4 
1 to 5, 10 

Austronesian 
Kaiep 
East Sepik 
5, 10 
6 to 9 are 5+n where n = 1 to 4 
1 to 5, 10 
Digit tally, Austronesian with a less familiar
numeral for 4 but 5 is lim. When tallying 5 is thumb of left hand and
6 is thumb of right hand. 
Austronesian 
Kairiru 
East Sepik 
5, 10 
6 to 9 is 5 + n, where n= 1 to 4 
1 to 5, 10 
5 and 10 cycle, Austronesian 
Austronesian 
Sepa 
Madang 
5, 10, ? 
digit tally? 
1 TO 5, 10? 
Hand and 5 use "lima", word for
10 but possibly digit tally 
Austronesian 
Takia 
Madang 
5, 10 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 10 
5 and possible 20 cycle digit tally system
with hand and feet morpheme more akin to the Papuan systems. Change to
numeral without hand morpheme used then for 6 to 9 as 5 + n, where n=
1 to 4 
Austronesian 
Budibud 
Milne Bay 
5, 10 
1010 or 10s two, 10s three, teens different

1 to 5, 10 
10s two , 10s three; variation in 2, 3,
4 in teens, 
Austronesian 
Doga 
Milne Bay 
5, 10 
numerals, 5 has hand morph, 10 is man 
1 to 5, 10 
numerals for 15, 10 is man 
Austronesian 
Yamap 
Morobe 
5, 10 ? 
digit tally? 
1 to5, 10 
5 cycle and probably 10 cycle system as
there is a distinct word for 10. 5 to 9 contain a hand morphene 
Austronesian 
Lavongai 
New Ireland 
5, 10 
6 to 9 = 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10 
5 and 10 cycles 
Austronesian 
Tigak 
New Ireland 
5, 10 
6 to 9 = 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10 
5 qnd 10 cycle with 6=5+1, 7=5+2 
Austronesian 
Nalik 
New Ireland 
5, 10 
6 to 9 = [x] +n 
1 to 5, 10 
5 and 10 cycles, variations for 6 = a numeral
plus 1 etc
fractions and first three ordinals 
Austronesian 
Teop 
North Solomons 
5, 10 
6 to 9= (5) + n 
1 to 5, 10 
The numerals for 1 to 5, are used for 6
to 9 by what is added 5. Similarly 11 to 19 as 10 + n with 15 being 10
+ 5. The decades are products of 10. 
Austronesian 
Timputz 
North Solomons 
5, 10 
6 to 9 = 5 + n where n= 1 to 4 
1 to 5, 10 
Decades to 50 are nx10; There are 1 to 5
numerals with 6 to 9 using these numerals, 15 = 10 + 5. Several words
are not typically AN, nor is the word for hand used. 
Austronesian 
Hahon 
North Solomons 
5, 10 
6 to 9 = 5 + n, with n=1to 4 
1 to 5, 10 

Austronesian 
UlauSuain 
Sandaun 
5, 10 
6 to 9 = 5 + n where n= 1 to 4 
1 to 5, 10 

Austronesian 
GimiAgerlepPalik 
West New Britain 
5, 10 
6 to 10, n + x 
1 to 5 ,10 
5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4 
Austronesian 
GimiAgerlepPalik 
West New Britain 
5, 10 
6 to 10, n + x 
1 to 5 ,10 
5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4 
Austronesian 
GimiAgerlepPalik 
West New Britain 
5, 10 
6 to 10, n + x 
1 to 5 ,10 
5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4 
Austronesian 
Aria 
West New Britain 
5, 10 
6 to 10, x + n 
1 to 5, 10 
5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4 
Austronesian 
Mok 
West New Britain 
5, 10 
6 to 10, x + n 
1 to 5, 10 
5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4 
Austronesian 
Merambera 
West New Britain 
5, 10 
6 to 8: x + n 
1 to 5, 9, 10 
5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4, regular decades 10 x n where n is 1 to 9 
Austronesian 
Merambera 
West New Britain 
5, 10 
6 to 8: x + n 
1 to 5, 9, 10 
5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4, regular decades 10 x n where n is 1 to 9 
Austronesian 
Mangsing 
West New Britain 
5, 10 
6 to 9: 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10 
5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4, regular decades 10 x n where n is 1 to 9 
Austronesian 
Bebeli 
West New Britain 
5, 10 
6 to 9: (5) + n 
1 to 5, 10 
5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4, with additional morphemes 
Austronesian 
Harua 
West New Britain 
5, 10 
6 to 9: 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10 
5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4, regular decades 10 x n where n is 1 to 9 and teens as clearly
one ten and so many ones 
Austronesian 
LesingAtui 
West New Britain 
5, 10 
6 to 9: 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10 
5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4, regular decades 10 x n where n is 1 to 9 with variation in the
morpheme for 10 in the decades 
Austronesian 
Asengseng 
West New Britain 
5, 10 ? 
6 to 9, 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10 ? 
5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4 
Austronesian 
Bariai 
West New Britain 
5, 10 
6 to 9: 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10, 100 
5, 10 cycles with number word for 100.
6 to 9 includes a 5 morpheme.
Objects counted in fours, e.g. yams, taros, coconuts 
Austronesian 
Avau 
West New Britain 
5, 10 
6 to 9: n + x 
1 to 5, 10 
5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4, regular decades 10 x n where n is 1 to 9 
Austronesian 
Akolet 
West New Britain 
5, 10 
6 to 9: n + x 
1 to 5, 10 
5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4, regular decades 10 x n where n is 1 to 9 
Austronesian 
LamogaiRautoIvanga 
West New Britain 
5, 10 
6 to 9 : n + x 
1 to 5, 100 ? 
5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4
distinct word for 100 similar to other languages among the recent informants

Austronesian 
LamogaiRautoIvanga 
West New Britain 
5, 10 
6 to 9 : x + n' 
1 to 5, 1 100 ? 
5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4
distinct word for 100 similar to other languages among the recent informants

Austronesian 
Bola 
West New Britain 
5, 10 
6 to 9, x + n 
1 to 5 ,10 
5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4 
Austronesian 
Arove 
West New Britain 
5, 10 
6 to 9, x + n 
1 to 5, 10, 100 
5, 10, 100 cycle with 6 to 9 being a 5 plus
1 to 4 construction. 100 is given as 10 decades but also with a distinct
numeral 
Austronesian 
Mekeo 
Central 
5, 10, 100 
6 to 9 is 5 + n where n = 1 to 4 
1 to 5, 10, 100 
6 to 9 is 5 + n where n = 1 to 4.
Teens and decades are regular with decades incorporating an additional
morpheme as well as 10 and numbers 1 to 9 
Austronesian 
Muyuw 
Milne Bay 
5, 10, 100 

1 to 5, 10, 100 
Classifiers mentioned based on tree , house,
animals/females. Classifiers not generally used for 1. Also use numeral
prefixes for decands and hundreds 
Austronesian 
Kilivila 
Milne Bay 
5, 10, 100 
6 to 9 = 5+n, 5 is not a hand morph 
15, 10, 100 
Classifiers for range of groups denoted
by suffixes
5, 10, 100 with decades and hundreds regular 
Austronesian 
Kilivila 
Milne Bay 
5, 10, 100 
6 to 9 = 5+n, 5 is not a hand morph 
15, 10, 100 
Classifiers for range of groups denoted
by suffixes
5, 10, 100 with decades and hundreds regular 
Austronesian 
Muyuw 
Milne Bay 
5, 10, 100 
classifiers 
1 to 5, 10, 100 
Classifiers mentioned based on tree , house,
animals/females. Classifiers not generally used for 1. Also use numeral
prefixes for decands and hundreds 
Austronesian 
Kara 
New Ireland 
5, 10, 100 
6, 8, 9 = x + n 
1 to 5, (7), 10, 11 
5, 10, 100 with number 6, 8, 9 having a
word plus 1, 3 and 4 
Austronesian 
Tiang 
New Ireland 
5, 10, 100 
6 to 9 = 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10, 100 
5, 10, 100 with regular decades 
Austronesian 
Barok 
New Ireland 
5, 10, 100 
6 to 9 is 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10, 100 
5, 10, 100 cycles with 6=5 +1, but also
count in fours for certain objects 
Austronesian 
Patpatar 
New Ireland 
5, 10, 100 
6 to 9 is [5] = n 
1 to 5, 10, 100 
5, 10, 100 system with odd decades made
by adding 10 to the even decade, some fractions and ordinal numbers like
second, lima used for hand and 5 
Austronesian 
Tabar 
New Ireland 
5, 10, 100 
6 to 9 = [x]+n 
1 to 5, 10, 100 
5, 10, 100 cycles with 6 = number plus 1
etc, also added a suffix to give ordinal words like second, and some fractions

Austronesian 
Tumleo 
Sandaun 
5, 10, 100 
6 to 9 = 5+n where n= 1 to 4, 
1 to 5, 10, 100 
The first five numerals are prefixed with
'pa' in one set of data indicate that this has the meaning of 'only'
Those for 3 and 5, respectively 'tul' and 'leim' are recognisably AN in
character; those for 1, 2 and 4, however, are not noticeably AN, that
for 2, 'lo' or 'lou', having only a slight resemblance to the 'lua' or
'rua' commonly found in AN languages. 
Austronesian 
Ali 
Sandaun 
5, 10, 100 
6 to 9 = 5 + n where n= 1 to 4 
1 to 5, 10, 100 
There are five distinct words for the first
five numerals and those for 2, 3 and 5, are similar to the characteristic
AN numerals. The numeral 5, 'lim' is not an Ali hand morpheme. 6 to 9
has the form '5 + n' where n takes the values 1 to 4. 
Austronesian 
KaliaiKoveKombe 
West New Britain 
5, 10, 100 
6 to 9: 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10, 100 
5, 10, 100 cycles with 6 to 9 being combination
of 5 and 1 to 4. Regular decades, two dialects have reasonable agreement

Austronesian 
KaliaiKoveKombe 
West New Britain 
5, 10, 100 
6 to 9: 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10, 100 
5, 10, 100 cycles with 6 to 9 being combination
of 5 and 1 to 4. Regular decades, two dialects have reasonable agreement

Austronesian 
BaliVitu 
West New Britain 
5, 10 ,100 
6 to 9: x + n 
1 to 5, 10, 100 
5, 10, 100 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4. Newer data gives teens 
Austronesian 
BaliVitu 
West New Britain 
5, 10 ,100 
6 to 9: x + n 
1 to 5, 10, 100 
5, 10, 100 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4. Newer data gives teens 
Austronesian 
Keapara 
Central 
5, 10, 100, 1000 
6=2x3, 7=2x3+1, 8=2x4, 9=2x4+1 
1 to 5, 10, 100 
Beginning as a 5 cycle, it develops as base
10. Words are quite distinct for each dialect. Each also has different
words for the different objects such as coconuts being counted. Pairs
are used for 6 and 8 with one added for 7 and 9 except for Hula which
has 7=2x41 and 9=101 as a modified Manus type. 
Austronesian 
Keapara 
Central 
5, 10, 100, 1000 
6=2x3, 7=2x41,8=2x4, 9=101 
1 to 5, 10, 100, 1000 
Beginning as a 5 cycle, it develops as base
10. Words are quite distinct for each dialect. Each also has different
words for the different objects such as coconuts being counted. Pairs
are used for 6 and 8 with one added for 7 and 9 except for Hula which
has 7=2x41 and 9=101 as a modified Manus type. 
Austronesian 
Sinagoro 
Central 
5, 10, 100, 1000 
6 to 9 is 5 + n where n = 1 to 4 
1 to 5, 10, 100, 1000 
6 to 9 are both Motu type using 6 to 9 is
2x3, 2x3+1, 2x4, 2x4+1 and 6 to 9 is 5 + n where n is 1 to 4.
Data given on ordinals using possible prefixes and suffixes. Teens and
decades are regular and built on 10 
Austronesian 
Tolai 
East New Britain 
5, 10, 100, 1000 
6 to 9 = x + n 
1 to 5, 10, 100, 1000 
6 to 9 = x + n where x is a morpheme and
n is 1 to 4
Special ways to count common collections of objects like eggs, shell money
which are large numbers
Ordinals developed by using suffices and the notion of fraction is parts
so feasible to refer to a fraction as number of parts 
Austronesian 
Mengen 
East New Britain 
5, 10, 20 
6 to 9: 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10, 20 
Digit tally system with 5, 10, 20 cycles
and clearly use of thumbs and fingers 
Austronesian 
Mengen 
East New Britain 
5, 10, 20 
6 to 9: 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10, 20 
Digit tally system with 5, 10, 20 cycles
and clearly use of thumbs and fingers 
Austronesian 
MamusuKakuna 
East New Britain 
5, 10, 20 
6 to 9: n+ x 
1 to 5, 10, 20 
Digit tally system with 5, 10, 20 cycles
and clearly use of thumbs and fingers 
Austronesian 
Uvol 
East New Britain 
5, 10, 20 ? 
6 to 9: x + n 
1 to 5, 10, 20 
5, 10, 20 cycles with hand morpheme for
5 and both 10 and 20 containing a man morpheme. digit tally 
Austronesian 
Lukep 
Madang 
5, 10, 20 ? 
40 = 10 x 4 or 20 x 2 
1 to 5, 10, 20, ? 
5 and 10 cycles and 40 is either 4x10 or
2x20 so further cycles are unclear 
Austronesian 
Manam 
Madang 
5, 10, 20 ? 
digit tally, no decade data, 6 to 9=5+n

1 to 5, 10, 20 
typical Austronesian words with 5, 10 and
may be 20 cycle system 
Austronesian 
Manam 
Madang 



digit tally with 10 and 20 
Austronesian 
Bohutu 
Milne Bay 
5, 10 ?, 20 
10 is not 5+5, 
1 to 5, 10, 20 
2 to 4 are not typically Austronesian, 
Austronesian 
Suau 
Milne Bay 
5, 10, 20 
6 to 9 = 5 + n, n=1 to 4 
1 to 5, 10, 20 
5, 10, 20 cycles or 5, 20 depending on the
dialect. Man is part of 20 and 100 is 5 man complete indicating a 20 cycle
system
Many dialects with data comparisons given
6 to 9 is five plus n where n= 1 to 4 
Austronesian 
Suau 
Milne Bay 
5, 10, 20 
6 to 9 = 5 + n, n=1 to 4 
1 to 5, 10, 20 
5, 10, 20 cycles or 5, 20 depending on the
dialect. Man is part of 20 and 100 is 5 man complete indicating a 20 cycle
system
Many dialects with data comparisons given
6 to 9 is five plus n where n= 1 to 4 
Austronesian 
Tubetube 
Milne Bay 
5, 10, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 10, 20 
5, 10, 20 data for use of numeral for 10
but then 20 is man complete rather than 10x2 
Austronesian 
Tubetube 
Milne Bay 
5, 10, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 10, 20 
5, 10, 20 data for use of numeral for 10
but then 20 is man complete rather than 10x2 
Austronesian 
Mutu 
Morobe 
5, 10, 20 
6 to 9 = 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10, 20 
5 and 10 are numeral words. 6 to 9 are 5
+ n. 100 is common with neighbours with whom they trade. 10 is similar
to many New Britain, New Ireland and Manus words for 10. 
Austronesian 
Barim 
Morobe 
5, 10, 20 
6 to 9 = 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10, 20 
5 numerals then 5 to 9 are 5 +n, 10 to 19
is 10+n. 20 is man one and there are multiples of 20 with intermediate
words as 20 + n etc 
Austronesian 
Sio 
Morobe 
5, 10, 20 
6 to 9 = 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10, 20 
5, 10, 20 cycle system so additional numeral
for 10, 5 has had morpheme 
Austronesian 
Bukauac 
Morobe 
5, 10, 20 
6 to 9 = 5+n, where n=1 to 4, teens =10+n
where n=1 to 9, digit tally? 
1 to 5, 10, 20 
5, 10, 20 cycle system with distinct word
for 10 and a hand morpheme for 5 to 9. 20 either is man whole or it has
a hand morpheme. 
Austronesian 
Labu 
Morobe 
5, 10, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 10, 20 
digit tally with 5, 10, 20 cycle. 6 to 9
are 5+n where n is 1 to 4, 10 is a distinct numeral and numbers like 30
are 20 + 10 
Austronesian 
Hote 
Morobe 
5, 10, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 10, 20 
5, 10, 20 cycle digit tally system with
hand morpheme used in 5 to 9 but distinct words for 10 and 20 which has
the gloss of 'one whole' 
Austronesian 
Misim 
Morobe 
5, 10, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 10, 20 
5, 10, 20 cycle digit tally system with
5 to 9 containing a hand morpheme but 10 and 20 have distinct words, that
for 20 meaning 'whole one'. 
Austronesian 
Kela 
Morobe 
5, 10, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 10, 20? 
Digit tally Insufficient data to confirm
a 10 and 20 cycle but clearly a 5 cycle 
Austronesian 
Kapin 
Morobe 
5, 10 ?, 20 
digit tally from 10 
1 to 5 
5, 10? 20 cycle implied by the data 
Austronesian 
Ubir 
Oro 
5, 10, 20 
? 
1 to 5, 10, 20 
5, 10, 20 cycles but it is unclear what
system best describes the system. Some Papuan influence perhaps with 4=2+2

Austronesian 
MalewKilenge 
West New Britain 
5, 10, 20, 100 ? 
6 to 9: 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10, 20, 100 
5, 10, 20, 100 cycles and 6 to 9 include
the 5 morpheme. Taros are counted in pairs and coconuts in fours, in which
case the pair or group is numbered off. 
Austronesian 
MalewKilenge 
West New Britain 
5, 10, 20, 100 ? 
6 to 9: 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10, 20, 100 
5, 10, 20, 100 cycles and 6 to 9 include
the 5 morpheme. Taros are counted in pairs and coconuts in fours, in which
case the pair or group is numbered off. 
Austronesian 
Suau 
Milne Bay 
5, 10, 20 or 5, 20 
6 to 9 = 5 + n, n=1 to 4 
1 to 5, 10, 20 
5, 10, 20 cycles or 5, 20 depending on the
dialect. Man is part of 20 and 100 is 5 man complete indicating a 20 cycle
system
Many dialects with data comparisons given
6 to 9 is five plus n where n= 1 to 4 
Austronesian 
Dobu 
Milne Bay 
5, 10, 20 or 5,10 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 10, 20 or 15, 10 
digit tally, use ordinals, unlikely to use
counting for comparing, for example, shell money but 'size' is used 
Austronesian 
Dobu 
Milne Bay 
5, 10, 20 or 5,10 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 10, 20 or 15, 10 
digit tally, use ordinals, unlikely to use
counting for comparing, for example, shell money but 'size' is used 
Austronesian 
Takia 
Madang 
5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
5 and possible 20 cycle digit tally system
with hand and feet morpheme more akin to the Papuan systems. Change to
numeral without hand morpheme used then for 6 to 9 as 5 + n, where n=
1 to 4 
Austronesian 
Gedaged 
Madang 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
Hand and foot morphemes used in this 2,
5, 20 cycle digit tally system 
Austronesian 
Gedaged 
Madang 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
Hand and foot morphemes used in this 2,
5, 20 cycle digit tally system 
Austronesian 
Kalokalo 
Milne Bay 
5, 20 
10=5+5 
1 to 5,20 
5, 20 cycles 
Austronesian 
Wagawaga 
Milne Bay 
5, 20 
6 to 9 = 5 + x + b, 10= 2 hands, 40=20x2

1 to 5, 20 
6 to 9 = 5 + x + b, 10= 2 hands, 40=20x2

Austronesian 
Bunama 
Milne Bay 
5, 20 
6 to 9 = x+n, 5 & 10 have hand morph,
20 has man 
1 to 5, 20 
digit tally with 5, 20 cycles 
Austronesian 
Kehelala 
Milne Bay 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
digit tally system with 5, 20 pattern using
hands and feet 
Austronesian 
Kehelala 
Milne Bay 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
digit tally system with 5, 20 pattern using
hands and feet 
Austronesian 
Kurada 
Milne Bay 
5, 20 
digit tally, 6 to 9 = x+n 
15, 20 
digit tally, with 5, 20 cycles 
Austronesian 
Iduna 
Milne Bay 
5, 20? 
hand in 5 and 10 
1 to 5, 20? 
5 cycle, 
Austronesian 
Mukawa 
Milne Bay 
5, 20 
hand, man for 20, digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
Digit tally with morphene for man in 20.
5, 20 cycles 
Austronesian 
Mukawa 
Milne Bay 
5, 20 
hand, man one 
1 to 5, 20 
Digit tally with morphene for man in 20.
5, 20 cycles 
Austronesian 
Tami 
Morobe 
5, 20 
6 to 9 is 5 + n, 11 to 19, teens :10+n'

1 to 5, 20 
5, 20 cycle. 6 to 9 is 5 + n, 11 to 19,
teens :10+n' 
Austronesian 
Mangap 
Morobe 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
While 5 is a numeral word, 20 seems to derive
from man. 
Austronesian 
Mumeng 
Morobe 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
A modified 2 cycle with continuing 5, 20
cycles of a digit tally system. There are slight variations between dialects
so a hand in one dialect is half implying half of the two hands. 
Austronesian 
Kaiwa 
Morobe 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
5, 20 cycle digit tally system with hand
and leg morphemes used as well as whole man for 20 
Austronesian 
Numbami 
Morobe 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
5, 10, 20 cycles in digit tally system with
hand morpheme. Leg morpheme in 15 and a clear use of 20 in 20, 40, 60
as man one, man two, man three. 
Austronesian 
Malasanga 
Morobe 
5, 20 
digit tally, 6 to 9=5+n, 10=2x5, 
1 to 5, 20 
5, 20 digit tally system 
Austronesian 
Maisin 
Oro 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 t o 5, 20 
This language is difficult to classify but
may have been an Austronesian language heavily influenced by Papuan language
and developing a 5, 20 digit tally system 
Austronesian 
ArifamaMiniafia 
Oro 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
5, 20 cycle system with hand morpheme likely
in 5 
Austronesian 
ArifamaMiniafia 
Oro 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
5, 20 cycle system with hand morpheme likely
in 5 
Austronesian 
Gitua 
Morobe 
5, 20, 100 ? 
digit tally; 6 to 9 = 5+n; 40 = 2 men etc

1 to 5, 20, 100 
Digit tally system with 5 having a hand
morph, 10 being 2 hands, 11 to 20 having foot morphs, 40 is 2 men etc

Austronesian 
Taupota 
Milne Bay 
5, 20 or 2', 5, 20 

1 to 5, 20 or 1 to 3, 5, 20 
5, 20 or modified 2 5, 20 cycle apparent
from the two lots of data 
Austronesian 
Kaulong 
West New Britain 
5 or 5, 10 
6 to 10, n + x 
1 to 5 
5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4 
Austronesian 
Kaulong 
West New Britain 
5 or 5, 10 
6 to 10, n + x 
1 to 5 
5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus
1 to 4 
Austronesian 
Nauna 
Manus 
5,10,100 
6 to 9:5+n,20 = 2 x 10 
1 to 5,10,100 
Nauna has a (5,10) cyclic structure which
is unusual among the Manus counting systems. The word for 5, 'tuten' is
also unusual and is not related to the AN form 'lima' and its variations.
Only one word for a fraction was reported, i.e the word for a 'half' which
is 'selehu'. The 'hand' morpheme in Nauna is 'min' which is not related
to the word for 5, 'tuten'. 
Austronesian 
Seimat 
Manus 
5,20 
9=101 
1 to 5,20 
5 and 20 cycles with extensive use of classifiers
to distinguish numbers of different classes of objects 
Austronesian 
Yabim 
Morobe 
digit tally 
5, 20 
1 to 5, 20 
5, 20 cycle 
Papuan 
Laua 
Central 
? 
? 
1 to 5 
Distinct numerals for 1 to 4. Insufficient
data to confirm 5 cycle 
Papuan 
Owiniga 
East Sepik 
? 
? 
1 to 4, ? 

Papuan 
Walio 
East Sepik 
? 
? 
1 to 4, ? 
Insufficient data 
Papuan 
Rocky Peak 
East Sepik 
? 
? 
1 to 5, ? 
No body morphemes to indicate whether it
might be a digit tally or bodypart tally system 
Papuan 
Iteri 
East Sepik 
? 
? 
1 to 5?, ? 
No hand morphemes so not possible to decide
whether it might be digit tally or bodypart tally system with a lack
of data 
Papuan 
Bo 
East Sepik 
? 
? 
1 to 5, ? 
not clear about use of body parts so cannot
tell if digit tally or body part tally system, lack of data 
Papuan 
Nimo 
East Sepik 
? 
? 
1 to 5?, ? 
To little data to decide system 
Papuan 
Papi 
East Sepik 
? 
? 
1 to 5, ? 
Insufficient data to decide type of system

Papuan 
Iwam 
East Sepik 
? 
? 
1 to 5, 10? 
Insufficient data to confirm it might be
a bodypart tally type 
Papuan 
Piame 
East Sepik 
? 
bodypart tally 
1 to 10, ? 
From thumb to shoulder used in bodypart
tally system but not sufficient data to determine cycle 
Papuan 
Lembena 
Enga 
 
 
 
Insufficient data to confirm a 10 cycle

Papuan 
Wapi 
Enga 
 
 
 

Papuan 
Ivori 
Gulf 
? 
? 
1 to 5 
Insufficient data to determine system, words
for 1 to 5 
Papuan 
Lohiki 
Gulf 
? 
? 
1 to 5, 10 
Insufficient data to determine system but
words for 1 to 5 and 10 
Papuan 
Mena 
Gulf 
? 
? 
1 to 7, 10 
insufficient data to decide system 
Papuan 
Minanibai 
Gulf 
? 
bodypart tally? 
? 
Insufficient data to confirm a bodypart
tally system 
Papuan 
Omati 
Gulf 
? 
bodypart tally? 
1 to 10 
Insufficient data to confirm bodypart tally
system 
Papuan 
Pawaia 
Gulf 
? 
bodypart tally? 
1 to 5, 10 
Possible bodypart tally sysem 
Papuan 
Rao 
Madang 
? 
(?) 
1 to 4, other 
Insufficient data to determine system but
words for 1 to 4 
Papuan 
Dimer 
Madang 
? 
? 
1 to 4,5(?) 
Insufficient data to determine data but
some words for 1, 2, 5 
Papuan 
Usino 
Madang 
? 
? 
1 to 5 ? 
Insufficient data to determine counting
system 
Papuan 
Urigina 
Madang 
? 
? 
1 to 5 ? 

Papuan 
Tauya 
Madang 
? 
4 = 2 + 2 
1 2 3 5 
2 cycle but insufficient data to determine
system 
Papuan 
Biyom 
Madang 
? 
bodypart tally? 
1 to 5 ? 
Insufficient data to confirm a body part
tally system 
Papuan 
Yele 
Milne Bay 



Borrowing of 'words' from neighbouring AN
suffixes. Particularly difficult sounds in language making it difficult
to reproduce consistently, evidence of a 4cycle system especially between
5000 and 9000 
Papuan 
Yele 
Milne Bay 

4cycle inside 10 for 1000s 
1 to 10, 
Borrowing of 'words' from neighbouring AN
suffixes. Particularly difficult sounds in language making it difficult
to reproduce consistently, evidence of a 4cycle system especially between
5000 and 9000 
Papuan 
Mape 
Morobe 

digit tally, 3=2+1, 4=2+2 
1, 2, 5, 20 
Digit tally system with hand morpheme 
Papuan 
Buin 
North Solomons 



Noun classifiers are used so there are different
words for 1 to 6 depending on the classifier. 7=103; 8=102. It has a
basic cycle of 10, 100 and is a Papuan language. The numbers 11 to 19
have a consistent pattern and there are clear sets for decades and hundreds.
There are usually 3 morphs associated with noun set. 
Papuan 
Konua 
North Solomons 
? 
 
1 to 5, ?, 10 

Papuan 
Keriaka 
North Solomons 
 
? 
1 to 5,?, 10 

Papuan 
Busa 
Sandaun 
? 
? 
1 to 5 

Papuan 
Musian 
Sandaun 
? 

1 to 5, 10 

Papuan 
Kilmeri 
Sandaun 
? 
5=2+2+1 
1 to 7 

Papuan 
Tuwari 
Sandaun 
? 
body parts 
1 to 14? 
Body parts system with words at least to
10 
Papuan 
Baibai 
Sandaun 
? 
body parts? 
1 to 5 

Papuan 
Nagatman 
Sandaun 
? 
body parts 
1 to 5 

Papuan 
Kwomtari 
Sandaun 
? 
bodyparts 
1 to 5 

Papuan 
Sau 
Southern Highlands 



possibly 4 or 5 cycle system 
Papuan 
Kaluli 
Southern Highlands 

bodypart tally 

Limited words and 5 and 10 do not include
a hand morph so more likely bodypart than digit tally 
Papuan 
Kasua 
Southern Highlands 

bodypart tally 

five has no hand morph so unlikely to be
digit tally system 
Papuan 
Lower Morehead (Peremka 
Western 



The only data derive from the Rev. E.B.
Riley's vocabularies (Riley & Ray, 1930, pp. 84950, Ray, 1923, p.343)
one of which is 'Peremka', an alternative name for Lower Morehead. The
number words from the Peremka vocabulary are 1neambi, 2yendar, 5neambi?

Papuan 
Upper Morehead 
Western 
? 
? 
1 to 5 
Data available in Riley and Ray, 1930, pp.
84950 and Ray, 1923, p. 343 
Papuan 
Boazi 
Western 
? 
? 
1 to 5, 10 
Lack of available data to finalise results

Papuan 
Nambu 
Western 


see other data 
2 cycle, digit tally likely; many records
with a number of variations 
Papuan 
TaoSuamato 
Western 
? 
bodypart tally 
1 to 5, 10 
Body part tally 
Papuan 
Beami 
Western 

not known, possibly bodypart tally 

not known but no hand morphene nor two cycle.

Papuan 
Konai 
Western 

possible body part as not same as digit
tally 
numerals, no hand morphene 
Possible body part as not same as digit
tally with no hand morphene but insufficient data 
Papuan 
Enga 
Enga 
10 
8=102?,9=101? 
1 to 7, 10 
Data from different sources. Initially there
were sequences of cycles of 4 with each sequence given a name. It appears
to be a modified 60cycle system. Early data suggests a bodypart tallying
system with 12 as nose. Analysis is difficult due to its use now mainly
in infrequent ceremonies A power of two beginning with cycles of 2, 4,
and 8 noted. 
Papuan 
Orokolo 
Gulf 
10 
converted body part 
1 to 10 
body part tally of 27 parts with modification
to accommodate introduced decimal system, abandoning at 10 
Papuan 
Kuot 
New Ireland 
10 
30=3x10, 50=5 x 10, 18=10+5+3 
1 to 10, 
5, 10 cycles with decades and higher teens
eg. 18=10+5+3 with similar pattern for other decades 
Papuan 
Anem 
West New Britain 
10 
20 = 10 x 2 
1 to 10, 100 
10 cycle with regular decades as products
of 10 
Papuan 
Buin 
North Solomons 
10, 100 
7=103, 8=102 
1 to 6, 9 
Noun classifiers are used so there are different
words for 1 to 6 depending on the classifier. 7=103; 8=102. It has a
basic cycle of 10, 100 and is a Papuan language. The numbers 11 to 19
have a consistent pattern and there are clear sets for decades and hundreds.
There are usually 3 morphs associated with noun set. 
Papuan 
Ekagi 
West Papua 
10, 20, 60 
decades 
1 to 10, 20, 30, 50, 60, 100 
Unusual Papuan system with 10 base. However,
higher cycles also of 20 and 60 but no evidence of a bodypart tally system.
It is more likely to be a hybrid of a 6 cycle and 10 cycle resulting from
interactions with other systems. 
Papuan 
Ama 
East Sepik 
12 ? 
bodypart tally 
1 to 6, 7, 9, 11 
Bodypart tally is unusual in including
the navel and switching from left and right breast and shoulders. Unusual
if only a system up to 12 but no more data suggested, only 'many' 
Papuan 
Danu 
Southern Highlands 
14 
body part tally 
1 to 14 
14 cycle asymmetric body part tally system
moving up one side and across to the eye and ear of the other side. 
Papuan 
Keuru 
Gulf 
15 ? 
digit tally? 
1 to 14, 20 
unusual digit tally as it uses finger words
for the first five numerals and 5 does not contain a hand morphene, cycle
of 15 
Papuan 
Huli 
Southern Highlands 
15 or 27 
two hands and a foot tally, probably from
bodypart tally
suffixes 
1 to 14 
Classifiers and 15 cycle system using fingers
and toes but possibly it was originally a bodypart tally system. The
system also uses suffixes for cardinal, ordinal numbers and time. Ordinal
numbers are often used for enumeration, e.g. in exchanges or gardens 
Papuan 
Agob 
Western 
18 
body part tally 
1 to 9 
Numerals for 1, with 1 to 4 as combinations
. 5 = 2+2+1 and not a known hand morphene. Also a body part tally system.
By Lean's time only numerals were used in various combinations.. 
Papuan 
Gidra 
Western 
19 
body part tally 
1 to 10 
body part replaced by digit tally systems
apparently 
Papuan 
Bine 
Western 
19 
body part tally, 4=2+2 
1, 2, 3, 5 to 10 
3 cycle. Older bodypart system. Also some
2 cycle and hybrid 2 and 3 cycle data 
Papuan 
Tauade 
Central 
2 

1, 2 
2 cycle system with 6 to 10 having 5 morphemes

Papuan 
Kamasau 
East Sepik 
2 
5 = 2+2+1 
1, 2 
5 = 2+2+1, insufficient data to decide if
it is a digit tally 
Papuan 
Muniwara 
East Sepik 
2 
5 = 2+2+1 
1, 2 
2 cycle 
Papuan 
NorthEastern Kiwai 
Gulf 
2 
5=2+2+1 
1, 2 
2 cycle 
Papuan 
Podopa 
Gulf 
2 
5=2+2+1, body tally ? 
1, 2 
2 cycle but some indication of a bodytally
system, 6 is 2+2+2, 10 is 2 repeated five times 
Papuan 
Mikarew 
Madang 
2', ? 
1,2,3=2+1, 4=2+2 
1, 2,? 
2 cycle with 5=2+2+1 
Papuan 
Garus 
Madang 
2 
3=2+1, 4=2+2, 6=3 *2 
1,2 
2 cycle system with 3 = 2+1, 4 = 2+2, 6
is given as 3 x 2 and also 2+2+2 
Papuan 
Garuh 
Madang 
2 
3=2+1, 4=2+2, 6=3*2 
1,2 
2 cycle system with the following combinations:
3 = 2+1, 4 = 2 + 2, 6 = 3 x 2 
Papuan 
Wanambre 
Madang 
2 
5=2+2+1 
1,2 
2 cycle but insufficient data to confirm
it is a digit tally system 
Papuan 
Kobon 
Madang 
2', ? 
bodypart tally with numeral set? 
1,2,5 to ? 
2 cycle system and probable 5 cycle 
Papuan 
Waibuk 
Madang 
2', ? 
numeral set / bodypart tally 
1,2,5,to ? 
There is a numeral set with 1, 2, 5 but
not clear how far but seems to be a
BodyPart Tally system 
Papuan 
Kalam 
Madang 
2 
numerical set 
1,2 
A bodypart tally system with a 23 cycle,
the symmetrical midpoint of the cycle being tallied at 12 at a point
at a base of the throat. The lefthand side of the body and then the symmetrical
righthand counterparts are employed. The fingers using their names are
tallied first and then the wrist (6), lower arm (7), elbow (8), upper
arm (9), shoulder (10), and collarbone (11). 
Papuan 
Sona 
Milne Bay 
2 ? 
1, 2, 2+1, 2+2, 2+2+1 
1, 2 
appears to be 2 cycle and not 2, 5 cycle
like other Dagan but limited data 
Papuan 
Sona 
Milne Bay 
2 
1,2,3=2+1,4=2+2,
5=2+2+1 
1, 2 

Papuan 
Ginuman 
Milne Bay 
2, ? 
3=2+1, 4=2+2 
1, 2, 5, 10,? 
2 cycle but not sufficient to give rest

Papuan 
Mamaa 
Morobe 
2 
? 
1, 2 
Basic numeral set with 2, 4, and 5 being
compounds of 1 and 2. 
Papuan 
Mamaa 
Morobe 
2 
? 
1, 2 
Basic numeral set with 2, 4, and 5 being
compounds of 1 and 2. 
Papuan 
Nuk 
Morobe 
2 
digit tally 
1, 2, 10?, 20? 
2 cycle but unsure of the other cycle 
Papuan 
Yagawak 
Morobe 
2 
numeral set 
1, 2 
3 is '2 + 1', 4 is '2 + 1 + 1', 5 is '2
+ 1 + 2', 6 is '2 + 1 + 2 + 1'; 10, however, is '2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2'. 
Papuan 
Bam 
Morobe 
2 
numeral set 
1, 2 
2 cycle system with 3 is '2 + 1', 4 is '2
+ 1 + 1', 5 is '2 + 1 + 2', 6 is '2 + 1 + 2 + 1'; 10, however, is '2 +
2 + 2 + 2 + 2'. 
Papuan 
Amanab 
Sandaun 
2 
3=2+1, 4=2+2 
1,2 

Papuan 
Oksapmin 
Sandaun 
2 
4=2+2 
1, 2, 3? 
Body parts counting system of 27 parts with
an additional 2 cycle counting system 
Papuan 
Olo 
Sandaun 
2 
digit tally 
1, 2 
Digit tally system with cyclic pattern of
2, 5 and Frame Pattern of 1,2,5 
Papuan 
Waia 
Western 
2 
? 
1, 2, 10 
2 cycle but changing 
Papuan 
Nambu 
Western 
2 
? 
1, 2, 5 
2 cycle, digit tally likely; many records
with a number of variations 
Papuan 
Dorro 
Western 
2 
? 
1, 2, 5 
2 cycle but data unclear to decide if body
tally or digit tally 
Papuan 
Suki 
Western 
2' 
?, 3=2+1 
1, 2, 4, 5 
2 cycle with possible words for 4 and 5
but probably not a digit tally system 
Papuan 
Agob 
Western 
2 
3=2+1, 4=2+2, 
1, 2 
Numerals for 1, with 1 to 4 as combinations
. 5 = 2+2+1 and not a known hand morphene. Also a body part tally system.
By Lean's time only numerals were used in various combinations.. 
Papuan 
Miriam 
Western 
2 
4= 2+2, 5=2+2+1 
1, 2 
Bodypart tally system and a 2 cycle system.
4 = 2+2, 5 = 2+2+1 
Papuan 
Southern Kiwai 
Western 
2 
4=2+2, 5=2+2+1 
1, 2 
2 cycle with 5=2+2+1 
Papuan 
Agob 
Western 
2 
5=2+2+1 
1, 2 
Numerals for 1, with 1 to 4 as combinations
. 5 = 2+2+1 and not a known hand morphene. Also a body part tally system.
By Lean's time only numerals were used in various combinations.. 
Papuan 
Lewada 
Western 
2 
5=2+2+1 
1, 2 
2 cycle include 5=2+2+1, variations on 3
as distinct numeral or 2+1 
Papuan 
Tirio 
Western 
2 
5=2+2+1 
1, 2 
2 cycle with 1, 2, and 5=2+2+1 
Papuan 
Wabuda 
Western 
2 
5=2+2+1 
1, 2 
2 cycle with 5=2+2+1 and pattern does not
persist for 810 but more language needed to see if body part system 
Papuan 
Bamu Kiwai 
Western 
2 
5=2+2+1 
1, 2 
2 cycle 
Papuan 
Yonggom 
Western 
2, ? 
bodypart tally 
1, 2, 4, to ? 
2 cycle modified and probably body part
system of 27 to 29 
Papuan 
Yonggom 
Western 
2', ? 
bodypart tally 
1, 2, 4, to ? 
2 cycle modified and probably body part
system of 27 to 29 
Papuan 
Nambu 
Western 
2' 
digit tally ? 
1, 2, 3, 5 
2 cycle, digit tally likely; many records
with a number of variations 
Papuan 
Nomad 
Western 
2 
pair counting 
1, 2 
Pair counting evident in two dialects with
a possible bodypart tally in another. 
Papuan 
Morigi 
Gulf 
2, 10 ? 
3=2+1, 4=2+2 
1, 2, 10 
2 cycle, 10? 
Papuan 
Anggor 
Sandaun 
2, 23 
body parts 
1 to 12, 20 to 30 

Papuan 
Awin 
Western 
2', 23 
bodypart tally 
1, 2, 4, 12 
2 cycle with 3=2+1 but from 5 on body part
tally of 23 cycle matches part words 
Papuan 
Giri 
Madang 
2, ?; 26 
3=2+1. 4=2+2, digit tally?;body part tally

1, 2 
2 cycle and bodypart tally system 
Papuan 
Giri 
Madang 
2, ?; 26 
3=2+1. 4=2+2, digit tally?;body part tally

1,2 
2 cycle and bodypart tally system 
Papuan 
Mianmin 
Sandaun 
2, 27 
3=2+1, 4=2+2+, 5=2+2+1, 6 =2+2+2+ 
1, 2, 7 to 14 
Body part tally system with 27 tally points
and a 2 cycle system, the words for the first 6 numbers are the first
words of the bodypart tally system in one source 
Papuan 
Mianmin 
Sandaun 
2, 27 
body parts 
1, 2, 7 to 14 
Body part tally system with 27 tally points
and a 2 cycle system, the words for the first 6 numbers are the first
words of the bodypart tally system in one source 
Papuan 
Faiwol 
Western 
2, 27 
bodypart tally 
1, 2, 5 to 14 
Body part tally with numerals for 2, 3,
4 in a 2cycle 
Papuan 
Bumbita 
East Sepik 
2', 3 ? 
5=3+2 
1, 2, 3 
5=3+2little data 
Papuan 
Wasembo 
Morobe 
2, 3 ? 
numeral set? 
1, 2, 3 
4 = 2+2, 5= 2+3, 6=3+3 
Papuan 
Som 
Morobe 
2, 3 
numeral system 
1, 2, 3 
A simple numeral system with a basic numeral
set (1,2,3), other numerals being formed from compounds of these so that
3 is '2 + 1', 5 is '2 + 2 + 1', and 6 is '3 + 3'. 
Papuan 
Gogodala 
Western 
2', 3, 20 
digit tally, 4=2+2 
1, 2, 3, 5 
4=2+2, morphene for hand appears in word
for 5, 10 and 20 but word for man is not used with the meaning being hands
and feet complete. 
Papuan 
Southern Arapesh 
East Sepik 
2', 3, 5 
5=3+2, 6=3+3, 7=5+2 
1, 2, 3, 5 
classifiers for 17 groups and 3 cycle gives
4 is '2 + 2', 5 is '3 + 2', 6 is '3 + 3', 7 is '3 + 3 + 1', 8 is '(2 +
2) + (2 + 2)', 9 is '(3 + 2) + (2 + 2)', and 10 is '(3 + 2) + (3 + 2)'.

Papuan 
Toaripi 
Gulf 
2', 3 ?, 5 
digit tally 
1, 2, 3, 5 
digit tally, a numeral for 3 but 4=2+2 
Papuan 
Ninggirum 
Western 
2, 30 
body part tally 
1, 2, 4 to 15 
Body part tally system with 30 cycle crossing
directly across from left eye to right. Numerals for 1, 2 3=2+1, 4, 5

Papuan 
Mountain Arapesh 
East Sepik 
2', 4 
8=2x4, 12=3x4 
1, 2, 4 
4 cycle system with possible 10 cycle 
Papuan 
Mountain Arapesh 
East Sepik 
2', 4, 10? 
3=2+1, 5=4+1 
1, 2, 4, 10? 
4 cycle system with possible 10 cycle 
Papuan 
Hagen 
Western Highlands 
2', 4, 8, 10 or 2', 4, 5, 8 
5 to 7=4+n, 6=5+1or4+2, 7=5+2or4+3 
1, 2, 3, 8, 10 ; 1, 2, 3, 5, 8 
Cycle of 8 dominates but some use of 10
in some data sources, as used in pig feasts. Remnants of 2 and 4 cycles.
Counting from small left finger bending fingers down, then after fingers,
use right hand fingers before 2 thumbs. Gawigl (Kaugel) source is more
straightforward and based on cycles of 4 and 28. 
Papuan 
Koiari 
Central 
2, 5 

1, 2, 5 
2 cycle but some data also provides a 5
cycle with a hand morpheme 
Papuan 
Barai 
Central 
2, 5 ? 

1, 2, 5? 
2 cycle pattern is clear but unsure of 5
cycle due to diversity in data sources. 10 and 20 are given with a morpheme
for many in one source and 4, 5, 10 seem to have hand morphemes with 10
being hand hand 
Papuan 
Barai 
Central 
2, 5 ? 

1, 2, 5? 
2 cycle pattern is clear but unsure of 5
cycle due to diversity in data sources. 10 and 20 are given with a morpheme
for many in one source and 4, 5, 10 seem to have hand morphemes with 10
being hand hand 
Papuan 
Bauwaki 
Central 
2, 5 

1, 2, 5 
2 cycle and apparently a 5 cycle but variation
in the data suggests unreliability of some of the data. 
Papuan 
Humene 
Central 
2', 5 
4=2+2, 6=5+1 
1,2, 3, 5 
modified 2 with a numeral for 3 and while
6 is 5+1, data for 7 and 8 appear to be in error 
Papuan 
Kunimaipa 
Central 
2, 5 
6 to 9 = 5 + n where n= 1 to 4 
1, 2, 4 
2 and 5 cycles with 6 to 9 = 5 + n where
n= 1 to 4 
Papuan 
Mountain Koiari 
Central 
2, 5 
6 to 9 is 5 + n where n=1 to 4 
1, 2, 5 
consistency of 2 and 5 cycle with 'whole'
used in one case for 5 followed by hand morpheme for remaining numbers

Papuan 
Mountain Koiari 
Central 
2, 5 
6 to 9 is 5 + n where n=1 to 4 
1, 2, 5 
consistency of 2 and 5 cycle with 'whole'
used in one case for 5 followed by hand morpheme for remaining numbers

Papuan 
Abia 
Central 
2, 5 
6 to 9 is 5+n where n=1 to 4 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5 cycles with 6 to 9 is 5+n where n=1
to 4. Various records from the different dialects, high number of numeral
words might suggest a bodypart tally system in the 1914 data but no confirmation

Papuan 
Abia 
Central 
2, 5 
6 to 9 is 5+n where n=1 to 4 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5 cycles with 6 to 9 is 5+n where n=1
to 4. Various records from the different dialects, high number of numeral
words might suggest a bodypart tally system in the 1914 data but no confirmation

Papuan 
Binahara 
Central 
2, 5 
6 to 9 is 5 + n where n=1 to 4 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5 cycle system with 6=5+1, 7=5+2, 8=5+2+1,
9=5+2=2 
Papuan 
Maria 
Central 
2', 5 
6 to 9 is 5 + n where n is 1 to 4 
1, 2, 3, 5 
2 cycle or possibly modified 2 if 3 is a
separate morpheme, 6 = 5+1 etc 
Papuan 
KolSui 
East New Britain 
2', 5 
3 = 2 + 1 
1, 2, 4, 5 
Modified two cycle system with 4 and 5 having
their own numerals 
Papuan 
Mountain Arapesh 
East Sepik 
2', 5 
3=2+1, 6=5+1 
1, 2, 4 
4 cycle system with possible 10 cycle 
Papuan 
Banaro 
East Sepik 
2', 5 
3 = 2+1, digit tally 
1, 2, 4, 5 
2 cycle modified, 3 = 2+1, digit tally likely
with palm of hand morpheme in 5 and 10 
Papuan 
Abaga 
Eastern Highlands 
2, 5? 
 
1, 2, 5 
2 cycle, 5 implied 
Papuan 
Yagaria 
Eastern Highlands 
2, 5 
6 to 9 = 5 + n, where n = 1to 4, or combinations
of 2 and 1 
1, 2, 5, 20 
2, 5 cycle system and apparently no 20,
man cycle 
Papuan 
Kerewo 
Gulf 
2, 5 
3=2+1. 4=2+2, 5=2+2+1? 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5 but insufficient data for decision
on system 
Papuan 
Toaripi 
Gulf 
2', 5 
digit tally, 
1, 2, 3, 5 
digit tally, a numeral for 3 but 4=2+2 
Papuan 
Ankave 
Gulf 
2, 5 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
2 and 5 cycle, digit tally, 4=2+2, 5 and
10 have hand morphene 
Papuan 
RaepaTati 
Gulf 
2, 5 ? 
digit tally? 
1, 2, 5 
2 cycle and possibly digit tally 
Papuan 
Hamtai 
Gulf 
2, 5 
digit tally 
1, 2, (5) 
digit tally 
Papuan 
Ipiko 
Gulf 
2', 5? 
digit tally? 
1 to 3, 5, 10 
hand for 10 suggesting a digit tally system
as well as 2 and 5 cycle but lack of data 
Papuan 
Uaripi 
Gulf 
2' ?, 5 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
digit tally presumed with modified 2 cycle
previously 
Papuan 
Arigibi 
Gulf 
2, 5 
digit tally?, 10=5x2 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5 cycle with 10 = 2 x 5, with hand morphene
suggesting digit tally but insufficient data to be conclusive 
Papuan 
Gamei 
Madang 
2', 5 
3=2+1, digit tally 
1, 2, 4, 5 
2, 5 cycles, 
Papuan 
Waskia 
Madang 
2, 5 
bodypart? 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5 cycle system but insufficient data
to confirm digit tally as some indication of bodypart tally system 
Papuan 
Bosman 
Madang 
2', 5 
digit tally, 3=2+1 
1, 2, 4, 5 
digit tally with a distinct word for 4 while
3 = 2 + 1 
Papuan 
Bongu 
Madang 
2', 5 ? 
digit tally, 4 = 2 + 2 
1, 2, 3, 5 ? 
modified 2 cycle and a 5 cycle suggesting
a digit tally system but 20 is not confirmed 
Papuan 
Bongu 
Madang 
2', 5 ? 
digit tally, 4 = 2 + 2 
1 to 5 
modified 2 cycle and a 5 cycle suggesting
a digit tally system but 20 is not confirmed 
Papuan 
Matepi 
Madang 
2', 5 
digit tally 4=2+2 
1,2,3,5 
modified 2 cycle and a 5 cycle to form a
digit tally system 
Papuan 
Igom 
Madang 
2', 5 ? 
digital tally,3=2+1 
1,2,4,5 
5 is 2+2+1 or it contains a hand or arm
morphene but also refers to 4legged pig 
Papuan 
Tangu 
Madang 
2', 5 
digital tally,3=2+1, 4=2+2 
1,2,5 
2, 5 cycle digit tally system 
Papuan 
Tani 
Madang 
2', 5 
digital tally? 3=2+1, 4=2+2 
1,2,5 
2 and 5 cycle but insufficient data to confirm
digit tally system 
Papuan 
Gusan 
Morobe 
2, 5 
digit tally 
1, 2, 4, 5 
2, 5 cycles 
Papuan 
Sauk 
Morobe 
2, 5 ? 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5? 
2 cycle but insufficient data to determine
5 cycle 
Papuan 
Finungwa 
Morobe 
2, 5 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5?, 
Minimal data indicates a 2 cycle and a possible
hand morpheme for 5 and the next few numbers 
Papuan 
Nomu 
Morobe 
2, 5 
digit tally, 15=5 x 3, 20= 5 x 4 
1, 2, 5 
Digit tally with data suggesting that 15
and 20 are multiples of 5 which has a hand morphene. 10 also has a hand
morphene. 
Papuan 
Baruga 
Oro 
2', 5 
4 = 2 + 2, digit tally 
1, 2, 3, 5 
modified 2 cycle and 5 cycle system, digit
tally 
Papuan 
Bariji 
Oro 
2', 5 
4 = 2 + 2, digit tally 
1, 2, 3, 5 
modified 2 cycle and 5 cycle digit tally
system 
Papuan 
Yareba 
Oro 
2', 5 
4 = 2 + 2, digit tally 
1, 2, 3, 5 
modified 2 cycle and 5 cycle digit tally
system 
Papuan 
Mawae 
Oro 
2', 5 
4 = 3 + 1 or 4 = 2 + 2 
1, 2, 3, 5 
modified 2 cycle with a 5 cycle system 
Papuan 
Aomie 
Oro 
2, 5 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5 digit tally system 
Papuan 
Managalasi 
Oro 
2, 5 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
2, and 5 cycle digit tally system 
Papuan 
Aeka 
Oro 
2, 5 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5 cycle digit tally system with common
use of hand and foot morphemes 
Papuan 
Orokaiva 
Oro 
2, 5 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5 cycle system with hand and foot morphemes

Papuan 
Siliput 
Sandaun 
2, 5 ? 

1, 2, 5 
2cyclic pattern for digit tally with possible
5 cycle 
Papuan 
Fas 
Sandaun 
2, 5 
10=5+5 
1,2,5 

Papuan 
Mehek 
Sandaun 
2, 5 
4=2+2 
1, 2, 5 
2 cycle with a further 5 cycle 
Papuan 
Pagi 
Sandaun 
2, 5 
digit tally 
1, 2 

Papuan 
Amto 
Sandaun 
2, 5 
digit tally? 
1, 2, 3, 5 

Papuan 
Aru 
Sandaun 
2, 5 
digit tally 
1, 2, 3, 5 
Digit tally, uses foot or leg morpheme and
has (5,20) cyclic pattern. 
Papuan 
Aiku 
Sandaun 
2, 5 
digit tally 
1, 2, 3, 5 
A digittally system which utilizes both
fingers and toes. One man is complete at 20 thus possesses a (2',5,20)
cyclic pattern. 
Papuan 
Olo 
Sandaun 
2, 5 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5) 
Digit tally system with cyclic pattern of
2, 5 and Frame Pattern of 1,2,5 
Papuan 
Elkei 
Sandaun 
2, 5 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
Digit tally system with cyclic pattern of
2, 5 and Frame Pattern of 1,2,5 
Papuan 
Wiaki 
Sandaun 
2, 5 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
Digit tally system using arm and leg morphemes,
and 2 and 5 cycles 
Papuan 
Beli 
Sandaun 
2, 5 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
Digit tally system with 2 and 5 cycles 
Papuan 
Yahang 
Sandaun 
2, 5 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
Digit tally system using fingers, toes and
20cycle is a 'man' cycle, i.e. the fingers and toes of one man. 
Papuan 
Valman 
Sandaun 
2, 5 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
Digittally system which uses tallying of
both fingers and toes. 2 and 5 cycle and likely 20 cycle 
Papuan 
Valman 
Sandaun 
2, 5 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
Digittally system which uses tallying of
both fingers and toes. 2 and 5 cycle and likely 20 cycle 
Papuan 
Warapu 
Sandaun 
2, 5 
digit tally 
1,2,5 
a digittally one which has a (2,5) cyclic
pattern. There are distinct words for 1 and 2: 'moike' and 'riyepin' respectively.
The numbers 3 and 4 are combinations of these: 3 has a '2 + conjunction
+ 1' construction and 4 has a '2 + 2' construction. The number words for
5 and 10 both contain a 'hand' morpheme and foot morphene for 15 
Papuan 
Waris 
Sandaun 
2, 5 
digit tally 
1,2,5 

Papuan 
Heyo 
Sandaun 
2, 5 
digit tally, 3=2+1 
1, 2, 5 
Digit tally system having 2 and 5 cyclic
pattern 
Papuan 
Chimbu 
Simbu 
2, 5 
digit tally to 5 
1, 2, 5 
2 and 5 cycles, digit tally, some data suggest
5 = '2+2+1' construction and 6 had a '2+2+2' 
Papuan 
Bimin 
Western 
2, 5, ? 
? 
1,2,5 
numbers to five only, may be 10, system
cannot decided 
Papuan 
Zimakani 
Western 
2, 5, ? 
3=2+1, 4=2+2, digit tally? 
1, 2, 5 
2 cycle for 3=2+1, 4=2+2, but 5 has hand
morphene suggesting with more data it might be a digit tally system 
Papuan 
Aturu 
Western 
2, 5 ? 
digit tally 
1,2,5 
2 cycle, probably 5 and digit tally system

Papuan 
Kamula 
Western 
2, 5 ? 
digit tally? 
1,2,5,10 
2 cycle, little data 
Papuan 
AriWaruna 
Western 
2, 5 
digit tally 6=x+1, 7=x+2 , 8=x+2+1, 9=x+2+2?

1, 2, 5, 10 
2, 5 MAY BE DIGIT TALLY 
Papuan 
Domu 
Central 
2', 5, 10 
6 to 9 is 5+n where n = 1 to 4 
1, 2, 3, 5 
modified 2 cycle with distinct numeral for
3 but 4=2+2, 5 cycle with 6 to 9 being 5 + n where n is 1 to 4. 10 cycle
suggest by one ten for 10 which is unusual for a Papuan system 
Papuan 
Benabena 
Eastern Highlands 
2, 5, 10 
6 to 9 = 5 + n 
1, 2, 5, 20? or 1, 2, 5, 10 
2, 5 cycle with 10 used for building with
hand and feet morphemes, 
Papuan 
Lilau 
Madang 
2', 5, 10 
digital tally,3=2+1 
1,2,4,5,10 
modified 2 cycle with 5 cycle and digit
tally system apparently 
Papuan 
Koita 
Central 
2, 5, 10, 100, 1000 
8=102?. 9=101? 
1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 10, 100, 1000 
2, 5, 10, 100 cycles are unusual with little
influence from Motu except for words for 100 and 1000 
Papuan 
Gants 
Madang 
2, 5, 10, ?, 20 ? 
digit tally? 
1,2,5,10,20 
2, 5, 20 cycles forming a digit tally system

Papuan 
Siane 
Eastern Highlands 
2, 5; 2', 5 
; 4=2+2 
1, 2, 5 ; 1, 2, 3, 5 
2 cycle or modified 2 cycle with hand used
for keeping track 
Papuan 
Daga 
Central 
2', 5, 20 
6 to 9 is 5 + n where n is 1 to 4 
1, 2, 3, 5, 10 

Papuan 
Sulka 
East New Britain 
2, 5, 20 
3 = 2 + 1, 4 = 2 + 2 
1, 2, 5, 20 
2, 5, 20 cycles with two groups of 20 for
40. 3 = 2+1 4 = 2+2 
Papuan 
Sulka 
East New Britain 
2, 5, 20 
3 = 2 + 1, 4 = 2 + 2 
1, 2, 5, 20 
2, 5, 20 cycles with two groups of 20 for
40. 3 = 2+1 4 = 2+2 
Papuan 
Abelem 
East Sepik 
2', 5, 20 
4=2+2, digit tally 
1, 2, 3, 4?, 5 
3 cycle in some data, others indicate a
modified 2 cycle, then digit tally cycles of 5 and 20 
Papuan 
Urat 
East Sepik 
2', 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 3, 5 
Digit tally 
Papuan 
Kombio 
East Sepik 
2, 5, 20? 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
digit tally 
Papuan 
Urimo 
East Sepik 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
Digit tally system with hand morphemes in
5 and 10, and hand and feet morphemes in 20 
Papuan 
Alamblak 
East Sepik 
2, 5, 20? 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
Two systems coexist with a bodypart tally
system. Men and women have different 29 cycle bodypart tally systems
using left arm to nose (men) and down right arm 
Papuan 
Mandi 
East Sepik 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5, 20 

Papuan 
Yate 
Eastern Highlands 
2, 5, 20? 
 
1, 2, 5, 20? 
2, 5 cycles but not clear if 20 cycle 
Papuan 
Fore 
Eastern Highlands 
2, 5, 20 
3=1+1+1; 4=2+2 
1, 2, 5, 20 
2, 5, 20 cycle system of digit tally system

Papuan 
GahukuAsaro 
Eastern Highlands 
2, 5, 20 ? 
3=2+1'; 6 to 9 = 5 + n 
1,2, 
2 cycle with hands and probably feet used
to keep track 
Papuan 
Usarufa 
Eastern Highlands 
2', 5, 20 
4=2+2; 6 to 9= x+n 
1, 2, 3, 5, 20 
modified 2 cycle with 5, 20 for digit tally
system 
Papuan 
Awa 
Eastern Highlands 
2, 5, 20 
4=2+2, 6 to 9 = x+n; 11 to 14 = y+n 
1, 2, 3, 5, 20? 
2, 5 20 cycle but also a numeral for 3.
digit tally system 
Papuan 
GahukuAsaro 
Eastern Highlands 
2, 5, 20 ? 
6 to 9= 5 + n 
1, 2, 5, 20? 
2 cycle with hands and probably feet used
to keep track 
Papuan 
Tairora 
Eastern Highlands 
2, 5, 20 
6 to 9 = 5 + n 
1, 2, 5, 20 
2, 5, 20 cycle of the digit tally kind 
Papuan 
Gimi 
Eastern Highlands 
2, 5, 20 
6 to 9 = 5 + n 
1, 2, 5, 20 
2, 5, 20 cycle of digit tally system 
Papuan 
Baruya 
Eastern Highlands 
2, 5, 20 ? 
6 to 9 = 5 + n 
1, 2, 5, 20? 
Distinct words for male and female 
Papuan 
Yagwoia 
Eastern Highlands 
2, 5, 20 
6 to 9 = 5 + n 
1, 2, 5, 20 
2, 5, 20 cycle system of digit tally kind

Papuan 
Binumarien 
Eastern Highlands 
2, 5, 20 
6 to 9 = 5 + n, n is complex 
1, 2, 5, 20 
2, 5, 20 cycle system of the digit tally

Papuan 
Agarabi 
Eastern Highlands 
2, 5, 20 ? 
6 to 9 = x + n 
1, 2, 5 
Hands and feet are used to keep track of
tallying in a basic twocycle system. 5 cycle implied Man or 20 brings
a 20 cycle. 
Papuan 
Musar 
Madang 
2, 5, 20? 
digit tally 
1,2 
2 cycle but as a digit tally system it is
implied that it has a 5, 20 cycles 
Papuan 
Monumbo 
Madang 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally, 3=2+1, 4=2+2 
1, 2, 5 
digit tally system with 1, 2, 5 cycles 
Papuan 
Domung 
Madang 
2', 5, 20 
digit tally, 4 = 2 + 2 
1, 2, 3, 5 
modified 2 cycle, 5, and 20 cycles in digit
tally system 
Papuan 
Isan 
Madang 
2', 5, 20 
digit tally, 4 = 2 + 2 
1, 2, 3, 5 
modified 2 cycle, 5 and 20 cycle with hand
and foot morphemes used in this digit tally system 
Papuan 
Ulingan 
Madang 
2' ?, 5, 20 
digit tally, 4=2+2? 
1 to 5, 20 
5, 10 cycle and possibly digit tally but
no data beyond 10. Some data implies a modified 2 cycle 
Papuan 
Gwedena 
Milne Bay 
2, 5, 20 
3=2+1, 4=2+2, 10=5+5 
1, 2, 5, 20 
2, 5, 20 with 10 having a hand morpheme,

Papuan 
Jimajima 
Milne Bay 
2', 5, 20 
7=x+2, 8=x+3 
1 to 3, 5, 20 
modified two cycle, 5 and 20 cycles. 9 may
be x+2+2 as a pattern for numbers between 6 and 9 as x + number used between
1 and 4 
Papuan 
Agaataha 
Morobe 
2' ?, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 3, 4?, 5 
digit tally with 2 cycle but 4 being x +
x where x is not 2. hand morpheme used in 5, 10, 15 but foot morpheme
appears in 20 (not 15) 
Papuan 
Nakama 
Morobe 
2 ?, 5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1, 2, 3?,4?, 5, 20 
5, 20 cycle system with possible 2 cycle

Papuan 
Weri 
Morobe 
2', 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 4, 5, 20 
2', 5, 20 cycles in digit tally system with
use of hand and feet morphemes 
Papuan 
Irumu 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5 and implied 20 cycle digit tally system

Papuan 
Waffa 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5, 20 cycle digit tally system with variation
in the word for 5 as 5th finger or hands half 
Papuan 
Safeyoka 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5, 20 cycle system forming a digit tally
system 
Papuan 
Kamasa 
Morobe 
2, 5 ?, 20 ? 
digit tally? 
1, 2, 5? 
2 numerals only provided 
Papuan 
Kawatsa 
Morobe 
2, 5 ?, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5? 
Insufficient data to confirm more than the
2 cycle but seems to have a 5 and 20 cycle not necessarily using hand
morphemes 
Papuan 
Menya 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
2, 5, 20 cycles in a digit tally system

Papuan 
Nek 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5, 20 
Uses 'hand' and 'leg' morpheme 
Papuan 
Numanggang 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5, 20 
Digit tally uses 'hand' morpheme 
Papuan 
Nimi 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5, 20 
2, 5, 20 digit tally system 
Papuan 
Wantoat 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5, 20 
2, 5, 20 cycles for digit tally with use
of hand morpheme in 5 to 19, man complete for 20 
Papuan 
Suena 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5, 20 

Papuan 
Yekora 
Morobe 
2', 5, 20 
digit tally, 3=2+1 
1, 2, 4, 5, 20 
modified 2 cycle with 5 and 20 cycle in
digit tally, use of hand, foot and man morphemes 
Papuan 
Zia 
Morobe 
2', 5, 20 
digit tally, 3=2+1 
1, 2, 4, 5, 20 
2', 5, 20 cycle digit tally system with
meaning of 4 and addition for 3 (2+x) are unsure 
Papuan 
Kinalakna 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 ? 
digit tally; 3 = 2+1, 4=2+2 
1, 2, 5 
This digit tally system uses 1 and 2 to
give 3 and 4. Both 5 and 10 contain a 'hand' morpheme. The number words
for 11 to 20 each contain a 'leg' morpheme. 
Papuan 
Kate 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally; 3=2+1. 4=2+2; 15 = 3 x 5? 
1,2, 5, 20 
This digit tally system may have developed
15 = 3 x 5 and 20 = 4 x 5 
Papuan 
Migabac 
Morobe 
2', 5, 20 
digit tally; 4 = 2+2 
1, 2, 3 
This digit tally system has 5 and 10 having
hand morphenes meaning hand one and hand two respectively. 15 is hands
two, foot one while 20 is one whole man. 
Papuan 
Weliki 
Morobe 
2', 5, 20 ? 
digit tally, 4=2+2 
1, 2, 3, 5 
Digit tally system with 4 = 2 + 2. Hand
finished for 5. 11, 15, 20 have leg morphs. 
Papuan 
Ono 
Morobe 
2', 5, 20 
digit tally; 4 = 2 + 2 
1, 2, 3, 5 
This is a digit tallty system with 4 composed
of 2.
5 is hand one, and 10 is hand two. 11 to 19 contain a leg morpheme and
20 is two hands and two legs in some data provided. 
Papuan 
Komutu 
Morobe 
2', 5, 20 
digit tally; 4 = 2+2 
1, 2, 3, 5, 20 
Digit tally with hand morphs for 5 and 10
and leg morph for 11 and 15. Word for man included in 20. 
Papuan 
Kumukio 
Morobe 
2', 5, 20 
digit tally, 4 = 2+ 2 
1, 2, 3, 5, 20 
This digit tallty system has number words
for 5 and 10 containing a hand morpheme while 11 to 19 contain foot or
leg morpheme and 20 is legs hands together. 40 is two men. 
Papuan 
Nabak 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally, 4=2+2 
1, 2, 3, 5, 20 
modified 2 cycle, foot/hand 5 cycle, 20
cycle digit tally 
Papuan 
GuhuSamane 
Morobe 
2', 5, 20 
digit tally , 4=2+2 
1, 2, 3, 5, 20 
2', 5, 20 cycle system for digit tally 
Papuan 
GuhuSamane 
Morobe 
2', 5, 20 
digit tally, 4 = 2+2 
1, 2, 3, 5, 20 
2', 5, 20 cycle system for digit tally 
Papuan 
Sialum 
Morobe 
2', 5, 20 
digit tally; 4 = 2+2; 6 to 9 = x+ n 
1, 2, 3, 5 
This digit tally system has x + n form for
both 6 to 9 and 11 to 14. 5 is hand, 10 is hand two, 15 is hand 3 but
20 has a foot morpheme 
Papuan 
Biangai 
Morobe 
2', 5, 20 
digit tally, 4=51 
1, 2, 4?, 5, 20 
2', 5, 20 cycle digit tally system with
numbers 6 to 20 containing a hand morpheme and 11 to 20 having a foot
morpheme as well. 20 also has the word man whole. 
Papuan 
Munkip 
Morobe 
2, 5, 20 ? 
digit tally, 5=2+2+1, 6=5+1 
1, 2, 5 
Uses both 'hand' and 'leg' morphemes explicitly.
The system thus is a digit tally one with a (2,5) cyclic pattern and an
implied 20 or 'man' cycle. 
Papuan 
Korafe 
Oro 
2', 5, 20 
3 = 2 + 1, digit tally 
1, 2, 3, 5, 20 
modified 2 cycle, 5, 20 cycle digit tally
system 
Papuan 
Doriri 
Oro 
2', 5, 20 
3 = 2 + 1, digit tally 
1, 2, 4, 5, 20 
modified 2 cycle with 5 cycle digit tally
system 
Papuan 
Abau 
Sandaun 
2, 5, 20 

1,2,4? 

Papuan 
Abau 
Sandaun 
2, 5, 20 

1,2,4? 

Papuan 
Kayik 
Sandaun 
2, 5, 20 
6 to 9 = 5 + x + n where n=1 to 4 
1, 2, 5, 20 
The Kayik system is a digittally one with
a (2,5,20) cyclic pattern. 
Papuan 
Alu 
Sandaun 
2, 5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
Digit tally using arm and leg morphemes,
with 2 and 5 cycle and implied 20 cycle 
Papuan 
Mikaru (Daribi) 
Simbu 
2', 5, 20 
6 may be 2+2+2, other patterns for 6 to
9 
1, 2, 3 
Number words for 1,2,3; 4 has '2+2' construction.
5 is 'thumb' Variations for numbers 6 to 9. 6 may be '2+2+2', 7 a hand
plus 2. 10 is 2 thumbs
11 to 19 contain leg morphemes, 40 is 2 men or 2 x 20 
Papuan 
Chuave 
Simbu 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 3, 5 
2 and 5 cycle with use of hand and leg morphemes
and some simplifying similar to Chimbu 
Papuan 
Chimbu 
Simbu 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1,2,5 
2 and 5 cycles, digit tally, some data suggest
5 = '2+2+1' construction and 6 had a '2+2+2' 
Papuan 
Chimbu 
Simbu 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1,2,5 
2 and 5 cycles, digit tally, some data suggest
5 = '2+2+1' construction and 6 had a '2+2+2' 
Papuan 
Nomane 
Simbu 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally , 4 = 2+2 
1, 2, 5, 20 
A fingerandtoe tallysystem with a (2,5,20)
cyclic pattern. The first four number words have the structure 1,2,2+1',2+2
(or 2'+2) where the primed numerals are variants. 
Papuan 
Chimbu 
Simbu 
2, 5, 20 ? 
digit tally to 5 
1, 2, 5 
2 and 5 cycles, digit tally, some data suggest
5 = '2+2+1' construction and 6 had a '2+2+2' 
Papuan 
Chimbu 
Simbu 
2, 5, 20 ? 
digit tally to 5 
1, 2, 5 
2 and 5 cycles, digit tally, some data suggest
5 = '2+2+1' construction and 6 had a '2+2+2' 
Papuan 
Bainapi 
Western 
2, 5, 20 ? 
digit tally? 
1,2,10 
2 cycle with 5=2+2+1, but ten has a hand
morphene included 
Papuan 
Idi 
Western 
2, 5, 20 ? 
digit tally, 3=2+1, 4=2+2 
1,2, 5 
Digit tally system 
Papuan 
Gogodala 
Western 
2', 5, 20 
digit tally, 4=2+2 
1, 2, 3, 5 
4=2+2, morphene for hand appears in word
for 5, 10 and 20 but word for man is not used with the meaning being hands
and feet complete. 
Papuan 
Nii 
Western Highlands 
2', 5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1, 2, (4), 5 
5 digit tally system 
Papuan 
Maring 
Western Highlands 
2, 5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
The digit tally system has numbers to 5
based on 2 and 1. Hand and foot are used as appropriate in the words for
5, 10, 15, 20. It has cycles (2, 5, 20). 
Papuan 
Waghi 
Western Highlands 
2, 5, 20 ? 
digit tally, combinations of 2 and 1 to
5; hand+n for some sources 
1, 2, 4, (7) 
The words link to fingers and toes. 5 was
a combination of 2 and 1 or half the hands. 
Papuan 
Yabiyufa 
Eastern Highlands 
2, 5, 20 ?,100 
6 to 9 = 5 + n 
1, 2, 5, 20?, 100 
2, 5 cycles with a morpheme plus 1 to 4
for 6 to 9, remaining data is less clear for 20 but indication of 100,
with hundreds following 
Papuan 
Kamano 
Eastern Highlands 
2, 5, 20 ?; 2' ,5, 20 
................. 4=2+2 
1, 2, 5, 20?; 1, 2, 3, 5, 20? 
Hands and feet are used to keep tally in
the basically 2 cycle system 
Papuan 
Purari 
Gulf 
2', 5 , 20?, 3? 
digit tally, 6=3+3, 7=3+3+1, 8=3+3+2 
1, 2, 3, 5 
body tally, modified 2 cycle and some 7
= 3+3+1 etc indicating a 3 cycle as part of a digit tally system 
Papuan 
Sakam 
Morobe 
2, 5, 22 
digit tally (nostrils tallied) 
1, 2, 3, 5, (11, 12) 
Digit tally system incorporating the tallying
of both nostrils so that 22 rather than 20 tallypoints are employed.

Papuan 
Maiwa 
Milne Bay 
2, 5 or 2, 5, 20 
3=2+1, 4=2+2 or 51, 7=5+2 
1, 2, 5, 20? 
2, 5, 20 cycles 
Papuan 
Narak 
Western Highlands 
2, 5 or 2, 5, 20 
digit tally, 2, 2+1, 2+2 or 2+1+1, 
1, 2, 5 
3 and 4 are combinations of 1 and 2. Five
and 10 has a hand morphene 
Papuan 
Kwanga 
East Sepik 
2', 5 or 5 
digit tally 
1, 2, 3, 5, (6); 1 to 5 
digit tally, two systems 
Papuan 
Hunjara 
Oro 
2, 5 or 5 
4 = 5  1, digit tally 
1, 2, 5 
5 cycle, 4=51, possible modified 2 cycle

Papuan 
Fuyuge 
Central 
2 or 2, 5 
7=5+2, 8=5+2+1, 9=5+2+2 with 5 cycle 
1, 2 or 1, 2, 5 
Both a 2 cycle and 2, 5 cycle systems given.
With the 5 cycle, 7=5+2, 8=5+2+1, 9=5+2+2 
Papuan 
Urii 
Morobe 
2 or 2', 5? 
digit tally 
1, 2, 3? 
Unusual system with a possible 3 cycle as
well as 2 cycle 
Papuan 
Purari 
Gulf 
23 
bodypart tally 
1 to 12 
body tally, modified 2 cycle and some 7
= 3+3+1 etc indicating a 3 cycle as part of a digit tally system 
Papuan 
Moresada 
Madang 
23 
bodypart tally 
1 to 12 
23 cycle bodypart tally system 
Papuan 
Kalam 
Madang 
23 
bodypart tally 
1 to 12 
A bodypart tally system with a 23 cycle,
the symmetrical midpoint of the cycle being tallied at 12 at a point
at a base of the throat. The lefthand side of the body and then the symmetrical
righthand counterparts are employed. The fingers using their names are
tallied first and then the wrist (6), lower arm (7), elbow (8), upper
arm (9), shoulder (10), and collarbone (11). 
Papuan 
Murupi 
Madang 
23 
bodypart tally 
1 to 12 
23 cycle bodypart tally one (as is common
with language groups possessing bodyparts systems).
Starting with the small finger of the left hand and, continuing with the
brachial parts between their joints and the joints themselves, they go
over the collar bone to the breast bone as the crossing point and then
to the right side thus ending with the small finger of the right hand.

Papuan 
Yuri 
Sandaun 
23 
body parts 
1 to 12 

Papuan 
Orokolo 
Gulf 
27 
body part tally 
1 to 14 
body part tally of 27 parts with modification
to accommodate introduced decimal system, abandoning at 10 
Papuan 
Telefol 
Sandaun 
27 
body parts 
1 to 14 
Body parts system of 27 parts 
Papuan 
Tifal 
Sandaun 
27 
body parts 
1 to 14 
Body parts tally system with 27 parts 
Papuan 
Oksapmin 
Sandaun 
27 
body parts 
1 to 14 
Body parts counting system of 27 parts with
an additional 2 cycle counting system 
Papuan 
Hewa 
Southern Highlands 
27 
bodypart tally system 
1 to 14 
27 part bodypart tally system 
Papuan 
Hewa 
Southern Highlands 



27 part bodypart tally system 
Papuan 
Sanio 
East Sepik 
27, separate 2 cycle 
bodypart tally 
1 to 14 
Bodypart tally with 27 cycle points with
nose as centre symmetry point. A separate 2 cycle numeral system too.

Papuan 
Ipili 
Enga 
28 
bodypart tally 
1 to 28 
27 bodyparts are used with some parts between
6 and 14 and 15 to 22 having the names of the body parts (i.e. not the
digits of the hands). The nose is the central number. 28 is man or "pondo"
in both dialects. A second set of words could be ordinal numbers rather
than cardinal numbers in both dialects 
Papuan 
Alamblak 
East Sepik 
29 
bodypart tally 
1 to 15 
Two systems coexist with a bodypart tally
system. Men and women have different 29 cycle bodypart tally systems
using left arm to nose (men) and down right arm 
Papuan 
Miriam 
Western 
29? or 25? 
body part tally 
1 to 16 
Bodypart tally system and a 2 cycle system.
4 = 2+2, 5 = 2+2+1 
Papuan 
Abelem 
East Sepik 
3 
4=3+1, 5=3+2 
1, 2, 3, 6 
3 cycle in some data, others indicate a
modified 2 cycle, then digit tally cycles of 5 and 20 
Papuan 
Bine 
Western 
3, also 2 and hybrid 
5=3+2 
1, 2, 3 
3 cycle. Older bodypart system. Also some
2 cycle and hybrid 2 and 3 cycle data 
Papuan 
Gende 
Madang 
31 
bodypart tally 
1 to 16 
A bodypart system 
Papuan 
Gende 
Madang 
31 
bodypart tally 
1 to 16 
A bodypart system 
Papuan 
Fasu 
Southern Highlands 
(35) 
35 bodypart tally 
1 to 18 
Symmetric 35 bodypart tally system 
Papuan 
Kewa 
Southern Highlands 
(35), (68) 
bodypart tally 
1 to 18 
48 bodypart tally system , 47 bodypart
system, 4 or 5 cycle system used as well as the bodypart tally 
Papuan 
Foe 
Southern Highlands 
(37) 
37 bodypart tally 
1 to 19 
37 bodypart tally system 
Papuan 
Boiken 
East Sepik 
4 
5=4+1, 6=4+2 
1 to 4 
4 cycle in island dialects but rest are
digit tally systems 
Papuan 
Vanimo 
Sandaun 
4 
8=4x2 
1 to 4 
4 cycle system with 8=2x4 
Papuan 
Kewa 
Southern Highlands 
4 
8=2 x 4, 12 = 3 x 4 
1 to 4, 5 
48 bodypart tally system , 47 bodypart
system, 4 or 5 cycle system used as well as the bodypart tally 
Papuan 
Wiru 
Southern Highlands 
4 
body part tally and c cycle with 5=4+1,
8=2x4 
1 to 23?, 45? ; 1 to 4 
Body part tally, probably of 23 parts and
a 4 cycle system 
Papuan 
Hagen 
Western Highlands 
4, 28 
cycle unit + n 
1 to 4, 8, 4cycle units 
Cycle of 8 dominates but some use of 10
in some data sources, as used in pig feasts. Remnants of 2 and 4 cycles.
Counting from small left finger bending fingers down, then after fingers,
use right hand fingers before 2 thumbs. Gawigl (Kaugel) source is more
straightforward and based on cycles of 4 and 28. 
Papuan 
Mendi 
Southern Highlands 
4, 48 
4cycle units from 9 to 48 
1 to 8, cycle units 
4 cycle unit system within a 48 cycle systems
beginning at 9, modified bodypart system with influences of Kewa 4 unit
cycles; also counted in pairs and quartets 
Papuan 
Mendi 
Southern Highlands 
4, 48 
bodypart tally 
1 to 20 
4 cycle unit system within a 48 cycle systems
beginning at 9, modified bodypart system with influences of Kewa 4 unit
cycles; also counted in pairs and quartets 
Papuan 
Ambasi 
Oro 
4 ?, 5 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
5 cycle but also a possible 4 cycle system
as 5=4+1 and 6=4+2 in one set of data 
Papuan 
Rawo 
Sandaun 
4, 5 
8=4x2, 9=4x2+1, 10=5x2 (rawo 2) 
1 to 4 and 1 to 5 (Rawo 2) 
There is a distinct word for 5, i.e. 'mihu'
or (in one case) 'nukambi'. Thereafter the 4cycle structure is displaced
by a 5cyclic pattern so that 6 is `5 + 1', 7 is '5 + 2', and so on. Thus,
a 4cycle structure in which numbers were tallied on the fingers but not
on the thumbs of the hands, has been displaced by a 5cycle system in
which fingers and thumbs are used, i.e. the usual digittally system.

Papuan 
Wutung 
Sandaun 
4, 5 
8=x+3, 9=x+4 
1 to 5, 6? 
Hand morphene for 4, new word for 5, ten
contains 5 morphene 
Papuan 
Enga 
Enga 
4, 60 
cycle unit +n, with n= 1 to 3 
1 to 8 (4cycle units to 60) 
Data from different sources. Initially there
were sequences of cycles of 4 with each sequence given a name. It appears
to be a modified 60cycle system. Early data suggests a bodypart tallying
system with 12 as nose. Analysis is difficult due to its use now mainly
in infrequent ceremonies A power of two beginning with cycles of 2, 4,
and 8 noted. 
Papuan 
Enga 
Enga 
4, 60 
fingercount 
1 to 10 
Data from different sources. Initially there
were sequences of cycles of 4 with each sequence given a name. It appears
to be a modified 60cycle system. Early data suggests a bodypart tallying
system with 12 as nose. Analysis is difficult due to its use now mainly
in infrequent ceremonies A power of two beginning with cycles of 2, 4,
and 8 noted. 
Papuan 
Kewa 
Southern Highlands 
47 
bodypart tally 
1 to 24 
48 bodypart tally system , 47 bodypart
system, 4 or 5 cycle system used as well as the bodypart tally 
Papuan 
Doromu 
Central 
5 
4=2+2, 6=5+1 
1,2, 3, 5 
2, 5 cycle with one dialect recent data
showing 10 and also 4 = 51 whereas in other dialects 4 = 2+2 
Papuan 
Kopar 
East Sepik 
5 ? 
? 
1 to 5, 10 
Insufficient data to confirm 5 cycle 
Papuan 
Yerakai 
East Sepik 
5 
digit tally 
1 to 5 

Papuan 
Watam 
East Sepik 
5 ? 
digit tally? 
1 to 5 
Digit tally probably as 10 has a hand morpheme

Papuan 
Bungain 
East Sepik 
5, ? 
digit tally, 6 to 9 : 5 + n ; n = 1 to 4

1 to 5 
Digit tally 
Papuan 
Kairi 
Gulf 
5 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
Digit tally with 5 cycle 
Papuan 
Degenan 
Madang 
5 ? 
? 
1 to 5 
numerals for 1 to 5 but insufficient data
to decide counting system 
Papuan 
Male 
Madang 
5, ? 
10 = 5 x 2 
1 to 5 
5 cycle but not clear of remaining data

Papuan 
Male 
Madang 
5, ? 
10 = 5 x 2 
1 to 5 
5 cycle but not clear of remaining data

Papuan 
Breri 
Madang 
5 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
5 cycle, digit tally system 
Papuan 
Mugil 
Madang 
5 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
words for 1 to 4 and 5 contains a thumb
morpheme, no data beyond 10 to confirm digit tally system 
Papuan 
Rempi 
Madang 
5 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
5 cycle digit tally system 
Papuan 
Amele 
Madang 
5 ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
Basic data indicates a 5 cycle but not sufficient
to confirm digit tally system 
Papuan 
Kamba 
Madang 
5 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 6 ? 
5 cycle with thumb morpheme used for 5 but
insufficient data to confirm it is a digit tally system 
Papuan 
Bunabun 
Madang 
5 
digit tally 
1 to 6 
5 cycle with digit tally system 
Papuan 
Saki 
Madang 
5 ? 
digital tally 
1 to 5,(?) 
Insufficient data to confirm 5 cycle and
digit tally system 
Papuan 
Sene 
Morobe 
5 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
5 cycle, little data to confirm digit tally

Papuan 
Ufim 
Morobe 
5 
digit tally, hands only 
1 to 5 
5 cycle system with numerals for 1 to 5.
10, 15 and 20 are respectively 2x5, 3x5, 4x5 
Papuan 
Sene 
Morobe 
5 
digit tallyt 
1 to 5 
5 cycle, little data to confirm digit tally

Papuan 
Binandere 
Oro 
5 
4 = 5  1, 10 = 5 x 2 
1, 2, 3, 5 
5 cycle system with 4 = 5  1, 10 = 5 x
2 
Papuan 
Notu 
Oro 
5 
digit tally 
1, 2, 3, 5 
unclear whether there is a 4 or 5 cycle
in addition to a 2 cycle 
Papuan 
Biaka 
Sandaun 
5 
10=5+5 
1 to 5 

Papuan 
Gizra 
Western 
5 
digit tally, may have body part 
1 to 5 
probably digit tally but may be body part

Papuan 
Kwale 
Central 
5, 10 
6 to 9 are 5 + n where n=1 to 4 
1 to 5, 10 
5, 10 cycle where no 2 or 20 cycle is present.
Expected influence of the neighbouring Austronesian language. 5 cycle
is still evident. 
Papuan 
Magi 
Central 
5, 10 
6 to 9 is 5 + n where n is 1 to 4 
1 to 5, 10 
System seems to have undergone change under
Austronesian influence to 10, 100 cycle. 10 is numeral from Sinagoro.
Trading influence causing decimalisation is likely and counting in fours.

Papuan 
Baining 
East New Britain 
5, 10 
6 to 9: 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10 
5 and 10 cycle with 9 to 10 being 5 plus
1 to 4. Different data for Umalot dialect 
Papuan 
Kapriman 
East Sepik 
5, 10 
? 
1 to 5, 10 

Papuan 
Murik 
East Sepik 
5, 10 
20=10x2, 30=10x3 6 to 9 = morph+1 to 4 
1 to 5, 10 
decades but 20 has a man morpheme 
Papuan 
Nagovisi 
North Solomons 
(5, 10) 
6 to 9 = 1 towards 10 , 2 towards 10etc

1 to 5, 10 
Noun classifiers and suffixes provide a
complex web of words for numbers depending on the classifier used. 6 to
10 are expresses as 1 towards 10, 2 towards 10 etc. Decades are clear.
This Papuan system has cycles of 5, 10. 
Papuan 
Siwai 
North Solomons 
5, 10 
6 to 9= n to 10 
1 to 5, 10 
Noun classifiers are used so there are different
words for 1 to 4 depending on the classifier. Decades follow a similar
pattern to numbers to 10 in that 6 to 9 are given as 1 towards 10, 2 towards
10 while 60 is 10 towards 100. 
Papuan 
Eivo 
North Solomons 
5, 10 
7 to 9 = 5 + n 
1 to 5, (6), 10 
Probable 5, 10 cycle system with hand morpheme
for 5 
Papuan 
PeleAta 
West New Britain 
5, 10, 100 
6 to 9: x + n 
1 to 5, 10, 100 
5 and 10 and 100 cycles with 6 to 9 being
5 plus 1 to 4, regular decades 10 x n where n is 1 to 9.
A word for 100 follows regular 100s such as 100 two and 1000 is hundred
ten 
Papuan 
Nasioi 
North Solomons 
5, 10, 100, 1000 
6 to 9 = 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10, (50), 100, 1000 
Noun classifiers and suffixes provide a
complex web of words for numbers depending on the classifier used. Decades
are clear and words for 100 and 1000 etc.
5, 10, 100, 1000 cycles 
Papuan 
Nasioi 
North Solomons 
5, 10, 100, 1000 
6 to 9 = 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10, (50), 100, 1000 
Noun classifiers and suffixes provide a
complex web of words for numbers depending on the classifier used. Decades
are clear and words for 100 and 1000 etc.
5, 10, 100, 1000 cycles 
Papuan 
Nasioi 
North Solomons 
5, 10, 100, 1000 
6 to 9 = 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10, (50), 100, 1000 
Noun classifiers and suffixes provide a
complex web of words for numbers depending on the classifier used. Decades
are clear and words for 100 and 1000 etc.
5, 10, 100, 1000 cycles 
Papuan 
Rotokas 
North Solomons 
5, 10, 100, 1000 
6 to 9 = n + x; 30=3 x 10 
1 to 5, 10, 100, 1000 
After reaching 10, a base 10 system. Numerals
1 to 5 are add to a word to get 6 to 9. 11 is 10 plus 1 and 15 is ten
and five. Decades have both 1 to 5 and 10 morphs. There is a special word
for 100 and for 1000. 
Papuan 
Taulil 
East New Britain 
5, 10 ?, 20 ? 
6 to 9: 5 + n 
1 to 5, 10, 20 
5 and 10 cycle initially but displacement
by the Tolai words for 6 to 9 as numerals rather than as 5 + n where n
is 1 to 4 as Tolai gives. Now 10 cycle system 
Papuan 
Chambri 
East Sepik 
5, 10, 20 
digit tally . 8 = 5+3, 9=4+5 
1 to 6, 10, 20 
Digit tally system with numerals up to 6
and for 10. However, hand morpheme used for 7 to 9 and leg for 11 to 19.
One man is used for 20 and following numbers to 39; 40 is two men 
Papuan 
Pay 
Madang 
5, 10, 20 
digital tally 
1 to 5,10,20 
5, 10, 20 cycles form digit tally system

Papuan 
Pay 
Madang 
5, 10, 20 
digital tally 
1 to 5,10,20 
5, 10, 20 cycles form digit tally system

Papuan 
Kovai 
Morobe 
5, 10, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 10, 15, 20 
Whilst the system is a digittally one (the
author's informants tallied the digits on the right hand first, the left
hand next, then the right foot and finally the left foot) there appear
to be distinct words for both 10 and 15; the word for 20 does not translate
as 'man'. 
Papuan 
Sawos 
East Sepik 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
digit tally with hand one, hand two, for
5 and 10 respectively 
Papuan 
Iatmul 
East Sepik 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
Digit tally with earlier data indicating
hand and foot morphemes but later data indicates that 11 to 19 fit into
the pattern of numerals like 1 to 9 
Papuan 
Iatmul 
East Sepik 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
Digit tally with earlier data indicating
hand and foot morphemes but later data indicates that 11 to 19 fit into
the pattern of numerals like 1 to 9 
Papuan 
Biwat 
East Sepik 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
Digit tally with hand and feet morphemes
for numbers between 5 and 20 
Papuan 
Gapun 
East Sepik 
5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
Digit tally probably 
Papuan 
Aion 
East Sepik 
5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5 

Papuan 
Kaunga 
East Sepik 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
digit tally, 4=2+2? 
Papuan 
Mayo 
East Sepik 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
hands and toes used to reach 20, man 
Papuan 
Kwoma 
East Sepik 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 

Papuan 
Ngala 
East Sepik 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 

Papuan 
Boiken 
East Sepik 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
4 cycle in island dialects but rest are
digit tally systems 
Papuan 
Angoram 
East Sepik 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
digit tally but not using hand, leg or man
morphemes 
Papuan 
Maramba 
East Sepik 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
Digit tally 
Papuan 
Buna 
East Sepik 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
Digit tally 
Papuan 
Kambot 
East Sepik 
5, 20 ? 
digit tally?, 10 = 5x2? 
1 to 5 
Digit tally probably with 10=5x2 
Papuan 
Bahinemo 
East Sepik 
5, 20 
digit tally, 7 = 5+2 etc 
1 to 5, 20 
Digit tally without any 2 cycle, hand and
leg morphemes 
Papuan 
Manambu 
East Sepik 
5, 20 
digit tally modified, 6 to 9 = morph+ 1
to 4, teens=2x5+1 to 9 
1 to 5, 20 
digit tally but no hand or leg morphemes
, 6 to 9 = morph+ 1 to 4, teens=2x5+1 to 9 
Papuan 
Auyana 
Eastern Highlands 
5, 20 
6 to 9 = x + n 
1 to 5, 20 
5, 20 cycles for digit tally system 
Papuan 
Bom 
Madang 
5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
Digit tally with 5, 20 cycles. The 5+n where
n is 1 to 4 and hand morpheme used in 5 and 10 with a foot morpheme in
20 
Papuan 
Bom 
Madang 
5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
Digit tally with 5, 20 cycles. The 5+n where
n is 1 to 4 and hand morpheme used in 5 and 10 with a foot morpheme in
20 
Papuan 
Songum 
Madang 
5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5, ? 
Little data but indication of a 5 cycle
system 
Papuan 
Siroi 
Madang 
5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
5, 20 cycles digit tally system 
Papuan 
Saep 
Madang 
5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
5 cycle but insufficient data for more possible
cycles 
Papuan 
Nahu 
Madang 
5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
5 cycle but insufficient data for more possible
cycles 
Papuan 
Kolom 
Madang 
5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
5, 20 cycles for digit tally system with
use of hand and man morphemes 
Papuan 
Yabong 
Madang 
5, 20, ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
5 and possible 20 cycle system 
Papuan 
Nekgini 
Madang 
5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
5 and possible 20 cycle system 
Papuan 
Neko 
Madang 
5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
5 and possible 20 cycle system 
Papuan 
Mebu 
Madang 
5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
5 cycle but insufficient data to say more

Papuan 
Bonkiman 
Madang 
5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
5 cycle system but insufficient data beyond
10 to determine further analysis 
Papuan 
Panim 
Madang 
5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 11 ? 20 
5, 12, and 13 contain a thumb morpheme and
a 5 cycle with insufficient data to confirm it is a digit tally system

Papuan 
Rawa 
Madang 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
5, 20 cycles digit tally system 
Papuan 
Burum 
Morobe 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1, 2, 3, 4?, 5, 20 
Digit tally system 
Papuan 
Yau 
Morobe 
5, 20 ? 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 
Digit tally system with 5 cycle and implied
20 cycle 
Papuan 
Kube 
Morobe 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
Digittally system with a basic numeral
set (1,2,3): 4 contains a 'thumb' morpheme 'kewong' ('kembong') and has
the gloss 'thumb without' or 'hand without the thumb'. 
Papuan 
Komba 
Morobe 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
A typical digit tally system with 5 and
10 having hand morphs, 11 to 19 have foot morphs and 20 is one man 
Papuan 
Kosorong 
Morobe 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
Digit tally and uses 'hand' and 'leg' morpheme

Papuan 
Yaknge 
Morobe 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
Digit tally, uses 'hand' and 'leg' morpheme

Papuan 
Tobo 
Morobe 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
Uses 'hand' and 'leg' morpheme 
Papuan 
Mesem 
Morobe 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
5, 20 cycle system with hand used to suggest
digit tally 
Papuan 
Dedua 
Morobe 
5, 20 
digit tally; 4 = 2+2 
1 to 5, 20 
5, 20 digit tally system 
Papuan 
Selepet 
Morobe 
5, 20 
digit tally; 6 to 9 = 5 + n; 
1 to 5, 20 
This is a standard digit tally system with
5 as hand half; 10 as all of only the hands; 11 to 15 have a foot morphene,
with 16 to 19 being 1, 2 etc at the other foot.; 40 is 2 men 
Papuan 
Timbe 
Morobe 
5, 20 
digit tally; 6 to 9 = x + n 
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 20 
The pattern is regular for this digit tally
system with hand or thumb morph in five; 11 to 19 have a footon morph
and 20 has a man morph 
Papuan 
Momare 
Morobe 
5, 20 
digit tally; 6 to 9 = x+n with similar constructions.
for other numbers 
1 to 5, 20 
This is a digit tally system; 6 to 9 = x+n
with similar constructions. for other numbers e.g. 11 to 14 
Papuan 
Momare 
Morobe 
5, 20 
digit tally; 6 to 9 = x+n with similar constructions.
for other numbers 
1 to 5, 20 
This is a digit tally system; 6 to 9 = x+n
with similar constructions. for other numbers e.g. 11 to 14 
Papuan 
Onjob 
Oro 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5, 20 
5, 20 digit tally system with hand and foot
morphemes and clear pattern for 40, 60 as 2x20 and 3x20 
Papuan 
Gidra 
Western 
5, 20 
digit tally 
1 to 5 
body part replaced by digit tally systems
apparently 
Papuan 
Gadsup 
Eastern Highlands 
5, 20 or 2', 5, 20 
6 to 9 = 5+n; 3=2+1 
1 to 5, 20; 1, 2, 4, 5, 20 
Hands and feet are used to keep track of
tallying in a basic twocycle system. Man or 20 brings a 20 cycle. 
Papuan 
Morawa 
Central 
5 or 2', 5 
6 to 9 is 5 + n where n = 1 to 4 
1 to 5 or 1, 2, 4, 5 

Papuan 
Tonda 
Western 
6 
12=2x6, 18=3x6; counting yams? 
1 to 6 
6 cycle system with 12=2x6 and 18=3x6, yams
also placed in 6s for counting 
Papuan 
Ndom 
West Papua 
6, 18, 36 
7 to 11 = 6+n where n=1 to 5, 12=6x2 
1 to 6, 18, 36 
6 cycle system with follow up words for
18 and 36. 72 and 108 are 36x2 and 36x3 respectively. 
Papuan 
Kanum 
West Papua 
6, 36 
7 to 11=x+n where n=1 to 6, 12=2x6
or x+6 
1 to 6, 36 
6 cycle system with supercycle of 36. 72
and 108 are 36x2 and 36x3 respectively.
7 to 11=x+n where n=1 to 6, 12=2x6 or x+6, 18=3x6 
Papuan 
Kewa 
Southern Highlands 
68 
bodypart tally, 
1 to 34, 
48 bodypart tally system , 47 bodypart
system, 4 or 5 cycle system used as well as the bodypart tally 
