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Table of Counting system

These records are sorted by language type, cycles, province, language, operative pattern and then frame words. To sort in another way, e.g. by language, download to Excel and sort. Some languages have more than one way of counting and so both are included but will be separated into the cycles. Further information on each language can be found on the languages database.
Download this table (306KB:Excel file)

Language type

Language

Province

Cycles

Operative pattern

Frame pattern

Important Features

Australian Mabuiag Western   body part tally 1 to 10 Australian language. Small counting system data suggests a digit tally but also seems to be a body part tally system to cycle 18 ro 19
Australian Mabuiag Western 2 digit tally 1, 2 Australian language. Small counting system data suggests a digit tally but also seems to be a body part tally system to cycle 18 ro 19
Austronesian Penchal Manus   7=10-3 1 to 6, 10 The numerals given are of Manus type with distinct numerals 1 to 6, and 10.
Austronesian Lenkau Manus   7=10-3 1 to 6, 10 The numerals are typically Manus in nature with distinct numerals 1 to 6, and 10, with 7, 8, and 9 having the usual subtractive form.
Austronesian Yamalele Milne Bay       Lack of information to determine system
Austronesian Lihir New Ireland       unusual in being 5, 20 cycle; count in groups of 4s as one group of 4 yams,
half and ordinals
Austronesian Papapana North Solomons ?   1 to 5?, 10  
Austronesian Piva North Solomons ?   1 to 5?, 10  
Austronesian Psohoh West New Britain ? ? ? 5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4
Austronesian Wuvulu-Aua Manus 10 ?   1 to 10? First few numerals shows an unusual and interesting structure with 6 = 3 twos, 7 = 3x2+1, 8=4x2, 9=4x2+1
Austronesian Likum Manus 10   1 to 6?10 The decades in Likum are formed with the numeral root and the suffix (or class marker) '-noh'. The word for 'hand', 'nime-', is not identical to the numeral 5, 'lime(h)'.
Austronesian Kaniet Manus 10 7=10-3,etc 1 to 6, 10 Diversity in data may suggest numerals come from different dialects. The numerals for 2, 5, and 10 are not typically AN. Subtractive process operates for the numerals 7, 8, and 9, and that there are distinct words for the numerals 1 to 6, and 10.
Austronesian Madak New Ireland 10 20=2x10, 100=10x10 1 to 10 10 cycle, decades, half, prefix for ordinals like a third
Austronesian Notsi New Ireland 10 20=2x10, 100=10x10, 17=10+5+2 1 to 10, 5 and 10 cycle with decades, 17 = 10+5+2, 100=10x10
Austronesian Lavatbura-Lamusong New Ireland 10 20=2x10, 50=5x10 1 to 10 10 cycle with decades, half, first
Austronesian Bulu West New Britain 10 20 to 90: 10 x n 1 to 10 10 cycle system with regular decades implying 10xn construction
Austronesian Doura Central 10, 100 6 to 9 =2x3, 2x4,2x4+1 1 to 5, 7, 10, 100 Motu numerals in place 140 years ago
10, 100 cycles, with numeral for 7 but otherwise
6, 8, 9 =2x3, 2x4, 2x4+1
Austronesian Gabadi Central 10, 100 6 to 9 =2x3, 2x4,2x4+1, decades nx10 1 to 5, 7, 10, 100 Motu type with numeral for 7.
6 to 9 =2x3, 2x4,2x4+1, decades nx10
counting pigs in 20s, coconuts in 10s, spears in bundles of 10
Austronesian Nara Central 10, 100 6 to 9 =2x3,2x3+1, 2x4,2x4+1; 1 to 5, 10, 100 10, 100 cycles of Motu type, 6 to 9 =2x3,2x3+1, 2x4,2x4+1; Ordinals
Austronesian Roro Central 10, 100 6 to 9 =2x3,2x3+1, 2x4,2x4+1; 70=50+20 1 to 5, 10, (40), 100 10, 100 cycles but Motu type, i.e. 6 to 9 =2x3,2x3+1, 2x4,2x4+1; 70=50+20
Also special word for 40 as well as 50 but it is not used again
Suffix for ordinals
Austronesian Mokerang Manus 10, 100 7=10-3, 1 to 6, 10, 100 'Manus' type and each numeral (with the exception of 1) is prefixed with 'ma-'. It is a 10-cycle or decimal system with the decades having the construction 'numeral + -ngol', e.g. 40 is 'ma-ha-ngol' where 'ma-ha' is 4. There are distinct words for 100 and 1000
Austronesian Mondropolon Manus 10, 100 7=10-3 1 to 6, 10, 100 The Mondropolon system is of the 'Manus' type.The numerals for 10 and 100 are atypical in that they are not constructed with the 'sa-' prefix common to many of the Manus languages.The numeral 20 is also atypical in that it appears to have a '10 x 2' construction whereas the higher decades have the construction 'numeral root +-nuh'.
Austronesian Sori-Harengan Manus 10, 100 7=10-3,etc 1 to 6, 10, 100 Typical Manus type with 7 to 9 = 10 - 3, 10-2, 10-1
Austronesian Pak - Tong Manus 10, 100 ? 7 =10-3,11=10+1 1 to 6,10 Common AN structure with distinct words for the numerals 1 to 6. 7 to 9 contains the words for 3 down to 1 implying the use of a subtractive process in forming these three numbers. There is a distinct word for 10.
Austronesian Baluan - Lou - Pam (Baluan) Manus 10, 100 7=10-3,20=2 x10, 1 to 6, 10, 100 10 and 100 cycles with 7 to 9 having a typical subtractive pattern of 3 up to 10, 2 up to 10 etc.
20 = 2 x 10 and 40 mighty be a distinct numeral
Austronesian Baluan - Lou - Pam (Baluan) Manus 10, 100 7=10-3,20=2x10 1 to 6, 10, (40),100 10 and 100 cycles with 7 to 9 having a typical subtractive pattern of 3 up to 10, 2 up to 10 etc.
20 = 2 x 10 and 40 mighty be a distinct numeral
Austronesian Ere-Lele-Gele'-Kuruti Manus 10, 100 7=10-3,20=2x10 1 to 6, 10,100 The counting systems of Ere, Gele', and Kuruti are all of the Manus type and probably other dialects too. A particle in construction of the thousands, Several Kuruti informants indicate a construction for tens of thousands .
"the numerals exhibit classification, with up to 36 classes in Buyang (Gele').
Austronesian Nimowa Milne Bay 10, 100   1 to 10, 100 Decades have suffix to numerals for 1 to 9 which are typical AN numerals, including' -lima' or '-nima' from 'hand'
Austronesian Nimowa Milne Bay 10, 100 ? 1 to 9 are typical set of an numerals, decade suffix 1 to 10, 100 Decades have suffix to numerals for 1 to 9 which are typical AN numerals, including' -lima' or '-nima' from 'hand'
Austronesian Sud-Est Milne Bay 10, 100 ? classifiers, typical austronesian numerals 1 to 10, 100 A large number of classifiers at least 22 indicated by a suffix
Austronesian Sud-Est Milne Bay 10, 100 ? classifiers, typical austronesian numerals 1 to 10, 100 A large number of classifiers at least 22 indicated by a suffix
Austronesian Erima-Mussau New Ireland 10, 100 20=2*10, 50=5*10 1 to 10, 100 10, 100 with decades. Word for half is imprecise as part so used for third and quarter with number words
Austronesian Erima-Mussau New Ireland 10, 100 20=2x`0, 50=5x10 1 to 10, 100 10, 100 with decades. Word for half is imprecise as part so used for third and quarter with number words
Austronesian Kandas New Ireland 10, 100 20=2x1=, 5=5x10 1 to 10, 100 10 basic counting words
Austronesian Sursurunga New Ireland 10, 100 20=2x10, 50=5x10 1 to 10, 100 regular decades, reasonable similarity for data collected nearly 400 years ago, a half, and ordinals
Austronesian Tangga New Ireland 10, 100 20=2x10, 50=5x10 1 to 10, 100 regular decades, similarities to other lists and to data collected 400 years ago
Austronesian Konomala New Ireland 10, 100 20=2x10, 50=5x10 1 to 10, 100 regular decades
Austronesian Siar New Ireland 10, 100 20=2x10, 50=5x10 1 to 10, 100 regular decades, data from 150 years ago and recent data are similar
Austronesian Label New Ireland 10, 100 20=2x10, 50=5x10, teens include 10 1 to 10, 100 regular decades , teens include a word for 10 not given for 10
Austronesian Nehan North Solomons 10, 100 20=2x10, 100=10x10 1 to 10 Base 10 systems with decades and 10 tens for a hundred.
Austronesian Nukumanu North Solomons 10, 100 ? 30=10 x 3; 11 to 20 = 10 + n, 1 to 10, 100 Base 10 system, with consistent addition of 1 to 9 for 11 to 19 and also decades as 30 = 10 x 3, count in pairs
Austronesian Takuu North Solomons 10, 100 30 = 3 x 10 1 to 10, 100 Base 10 system with classifiers
Austronesian Petats North Solomons 10, 100 30= 3 x 10 1 to 10, 100 Pure base 10 system
Austronesian Solos North Solomons 10, 100 30=3x0 1 to 10, 100, 1000 Base 10 system with special words for 100 and 1000 with teens and decades clear in newer data
Austronesian Nakanai West New Britain 10, 100 20 to 90 = 10 x n 1 to 10, 100 10, 100 cycles with regular decades 10 x n where n= 1 to 9
Austronesian Sinagoro Central 10, 100, 1000 6 to 9 is 2x3, 2x3+1, 2x4, 2x4+1 1 to 5, 10, 100, 1000 6 to 9 are both Motu type using 6 to 9 is 2x3, 2x3+1, 2x4, 2x4+1 and 6 to 9 is 5 + n where n is 1 to 4.
Data given on ordinals using possible prefixes and suffixes. Teens and decades are regular and built on 10
Austronesian Duke Of York East New Britain 10, 100, 1000 20 to 90: n x 10 1 to 10, 100, 1000 1 to 10, 100 and 1000 are distinct words. Decades, hundreds and thousands are produced by, for example, 3 tens. Large numbers are the same as Tolai.
Counting systems still in use seem to be 3 although 8 dialects.
Austronesian Duke Of York East New Britain 10, 100, 1000 20 to 90: n x 10 1 to 10, 100, 1000 1 to 10, 100 and 1000 are distinct words. Decades, hundreds and thousands are produced by, for example, 3 tens. Large numbers are the same as Tolai.
Counting systems still in use seem to be 3 although 8 dialects.
Austronesian Levei-Tulu Manus 10, 100, 1000 6=10-4,etc 1 t0 5,10,100,1000 The Lebej numeral for 6 is unique among the Manus systems with subtractive process, instead of having a distinct word for 6. The corresponding numeral in Chechek is normal, i.e 'o:nah'. For both dialects the numeral 1, is like Manus rather than West Manus. Hand and thumb in both dialects is not related to the respective numerals 5:
Austronesian Papitalai Manus 10, 100, 1000 7=10-3, 1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 'Manus' pattern, the prefix 'mo(a)-' for the numerals 2 to 10 and, by extension, the decades and hundreds. The decades and hundred are formed by suffixing a numeral root. The cyclic structure is thus decimal and has the pattern (10,100).
Austronesian Sisi - Bipi Manus 10, 100, 1000 7=10-3,etc 1 to 6, 10, 100 System is like those at the other end of the island. Numeral classification appears to operate when counting certain types of objects, e.g houses, holes, strings, spears, etc; no further information is provided however. Words for fractions. The word for 'hand' is 'limeu' which appears to be closely related to the word for 5, i.e 'limeh'. 
Austronesian Leipon Manus 10, 100, 1000? 7=10-3,etc 1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 A regular Manus type. The number words are mainly prefixed with 'ma-'. The formation of the decades shows a consistent pattern, the particle '-ngol' indicating 'ten', The formation of the hundreds and thousands shows a similar regular construction. Ordinals have sense of 'foremost' and 'behind, following'.
Austronesian Loniu Manus 10, 100, 1000 7=10-3,etc 1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 A regular Manus type. A consistent pattern for the construction of the decades, hundreds and thousands.
Austronesian Nali Manus 10, 100, 1000? 7=10-3,etc 1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 The usual structure of the Manus type of counting system. Most numerals have the prefix 'ma-'. The particle '-ngui' is used in the construction of the decades as The particle '-ngat' is used in the construction of the hundreds, e.g 100 is '(ma)sa-ngat', up to 1000 which is 'supou'.
Austronesian Ere-Lele-Gele'-Kuruti Manus 10, 100, 1000 7=10-3,etc 1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 The counting systems of Ere, Gele', and Kuruti are all of the Manus type and probably other dialects too. A particle in construction of the thousands, Several Kuruti informants indicate a construction for tens of thousands .
"the numerals exhibit classification, with up to 36 classes in Buyang (Gele').
Austronesian Andra -Hus Manus 10, 100, 1000 7=10-3,etc 1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 Particles are used for 10s, 100s and 1000s. Numbers for 1000 and 10 000 can be generated. The numerals 7 to 9 exhibit the usual subtractive process but show an unusual prefix 'The word for 5, 'limah'.
Classifiers have the construction 'numeral root + class marker'.
Austronesian Ponam Manus 10, 100, 1000 7=10-3,etc 1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 Regular Manus type of system but has numerals 7, 8, 9 Ordinals were reported by the IMP informant. The first three ordinals do not appear to derive from the corresponding ordinals but have the meaning .'front', 'middle', 'behind'. Generally the numerical classifiers have the structure 'numerical root + class marker'
Austronesian Bohuai Manus 10, 100, 1000 7=10-3,etc 1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 the 'Manus' type with a Frame Pattern (1 to 6,10,100,1000). The decades are formed by suffixing the numeral root and is most likely an example of numeral classification Similarly the suffix '-nak' is most likely the class marker for the class of 'hundreds' which are thus counted with a numeral root suffixed with this, e.g. 100 is 'ra-nak', 200 is 'lu-nak' and so on.
Austronesian Levei-Tulu Manus 10, 100, 1000 7=10-3,etc 1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 The Lebej numeral for 6 is unique among the Manus systems with subtractive process, instead of having a distinct word for 6. The corresponding numeral in Chechek is normal, i.e 'o:nah'. For both dialects the numeral 1, is like Manus rather than West Manus. Hand and thumb in both dialects is not related to the respective numerals 5:
Austronesian Lindrou Manus 10, 100, 1000 7=10-3,etc 1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 Manus type system showing the usual subtractive structure for the numerals 7, 8, and 9. The word for 10, 'ronoh', does not take the usual AN form 'sangahul', 'sangoul', also in Levei-Tulu. Decades uses the particle '-noh' , hundreds '-nek', e.g 100 is 'ri-nek', thousands '-wa(h)' . Regular for computer generation.
Austronesian Titan Manus 10, 100, 1000 7=10-3,11=10+1,20=2x10 1 to 6, 10, 100, 1000 System A is a 10-cycle or decimal system of the Manus type with the numerals 7, 8, and 9 , regular decades, hundreds and thousands
Austronesian Torau North Solomons 10, 100, 1000 20=2x10 1 to 10, 100, 1000 Base 10 system with a consistent pattern of decades as multiples of 10 and 100s as multiples. Some sources give a connective for 11 to 19 when using basic numerals with 10.
There are words for half and ordinals.
Austronesian Nuguria North Solomons 10, 100, 1000 30=10x3 1 to 10, 100? Decades, and 1000 is 10 hundreds
Austronesian Halia North Solomons 10, 100, 1000 30 = 3 x 10 1 to 10, 100, 1000 Base 10 system with words for a half or part, and ordinals.
Austronesian Uruava North Solomons 10, 100, 1000 30=3x10 1 to 10, 100, 1000 The base 10 system has connectives of 10 and 1, 10 and 2 for the numbers 11 and so on. The decades follow a consistent pattern. There are specific words for 100 and 1000. There are words for ordinals related to the cardinal numbers.
Austronesian Saposa North Solomons 10, 100, 1000 30=3x10, 11 to 19 = 10 and n 1 to 10, 100, 1000 Base 10 system with special words for 100 and 1000 and teens and decades following a clear pattern from recent data but unavailable from older data
Austronesian Banoni North Solomons 10, 100, 1000 7 to 8 = x + n, 20 = 10x2 etc 1 to 5 (9), 10, 100, 1000 base 10 with some combinations of 1 to 5 to get 7 to 9, decades, distinct words for 100, 1000. There are also numbers associated with classes such as round things.
Austronesian Motu Central 10, 100, 1000 etc 6 to 9 =2x3,2x3+1, 2x4, 2x4+1 1 to 5, 10, 100, 1000, 10000 Language used as a lingua franca in Papua. While retaining a 5 cycle system it has the form of 6=2x3, 7=3x3+1, 8=2x4, 9=2x4+1. It has distinct numerals for 10, 100, 1000, 10 000, 100 000. Prefix used for counting different classes, e.g. men, women, long things, coconuts, animals. Ordinals obtained by prefixing cardinal numbers for second etc
Austronesian Siar New Ireland 10, 100 (presumed) 20=2x10, 50=5x10 (presumed) 1 to 10, 100 (presumed) regular decades, data from 150 years ago and recent data are similar
Austronesian Misima Milne Bay 10 or 5, 10 decades of elulu + n (1 to 5) 1 to 10 or 1-5, 10 Decades clearly given
Austronesian Misima Milne Bay 10 or 5, 10 decades of elulu + n (1 to 5) 1 to 10 or 1-5, 10 Decades clearly given
Austronesian Middle Watut Morobe 2 numeral set 1, 2 1, 2 numeral set with 5=2+2+1, 6=2+2+2, but other record of hand and foot morphemes being used
Austronesian Roinji Morobe 2, 10, 20 7 = 2+2+2+1; 10=5x2 1, 2, 10, 20 4=2+2, paired counting
Austronesian Tomoip East New Britain 2, 5 3 = 2' + 1' : 4 = 2' + 2' 1,2, 5, 20 2, 5, 20 cycle system
Austronesian Matukar Madang 2', 5 digit tally, 4=2+2 1,2,3,5 Digit tally system with words for 1, 2, 3 and 5; 4= 2+2
Austronesian Sera Sandaun 2, 5 ?      
Austronesian Sissano Sandaun 2, 5 ? ? 1, 2  
Austronesian Mari Madang 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 5 2, 5, 20 cycles . 2 cycle system is unusual in an Austronesian language but some in nearby Morobe
Austronesian Dawawa Milne Bay 2, 5, 20 ? 3=2+1, 4=2+2, 5= hand, 10=2 hands 1, 2, 5, 20? 2, 5, 20 cycles with numerals for 1, 2 , 5, 20
3=2+1, 4=2+2, 5= hand, 10=2 hands
Austronesian Wedau Milne Bay 2', 5, 20 4=2+2, 10 is 2 hands, 20 is man 1 to 3, 5, 20 2, 5, 20 cycles forming digit tally system
Austronesian Boianaki Milne Bay 2', 5, 20 ? 4=2+2, hand in 5, 10=5x2, 6 to 9=x+n 1 to 3, 5, 20 distinct numerals for 1 to 3 so modified 2 cycle, 5 and 20 to form an AN digit tally
4=2+2, hand in 5, 10=5x2, 6 to 9=X+n
Austronesian Anuki Milne Bay 2', 5, 20 4=2x2, 5 and 10 seem to use hand morphs 1 to 3, 5, 20 modified 2 cycle, 5 and 20
4=2x2, 5 and 10 seem to use hand morphs
Austronesian Igora Milne Bay 2, 5, 20 ? 9=2+2+5, 6 to 9 = n + x 1, 2, 5, 20? 2, 5, and possibly 20 cycle
Austronesian Vehes Morobe 2', 5, 20 ? digit tally 1, 2, 3, 4, 20? digit tally with modified 2 cycle and 5 and an implied 20 cycle but insufficient data to confirm this
Austronesian Mumeng Morobe 2', 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 3, 5, 20 A modified 2 cycle with continuing 5, 20 cycles of a digit tally system. There are slight variations between dialects so a hand in one dialect is half implying half of the two hands.
Austronesian Mapos Buang Morobe 2', 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 3, 5, 20 2', 5, 20 cycle digit tally system with hand and foot morphemes
Austronesian Manga Buang Morobe 2', 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 3, 5, 20 2', 5, 20 digit tally system without the apparent use of leg morpheme in 15 and 20 is person complete
Austronesian Wampur Morobe 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 5 2, 5, 20 cycle digit tally with unusual reduplication for 2 with 4 being the single repeated after another morpheme
Austronesian Sukurum Morobe 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 5  
Austronesian Sirasira Morobe 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 5 2, 5, 20 cycle digit tally system with 2 cycle persisting for 5 in some data sets
Austronesian North Watut Morobe 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 5 2, 5, 20 cycle digit tally system
Austronesian Wampar Morobe 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 5 2, 5, 20 cycle with use of hand morpheme and for 11 to 19 foot morpheme as a typical digit tally system
Austronesian Sirak Morobe 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 5 2, 5, 20 cycles in digit tally system with hand morphemes for 5 to 20 and foot morphemes for 15 and 20 as the toes are complete on each foot
Austronesian Duwet Morobe 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 5 2, 5, 20 cycles in digit tally system with typical hand morpheme contained in 5 to 20 with a leg morpheme in 15 to 20
Austronesian Musom Morobe 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 5 2, 5, 20 cycle with typical use of hand morphemes from 5 to 20 and foot morphemes from 15 to 20
Austronesian Yalu Morobe 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 5 2, 5, 20 digit tally system using hand morphemes for 5 to 20 and foot morphemes for 15 to 20
Austronesian Lae Morobe 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 5, 20 Almost extinct language in 1990. hand morpheme used in numbers 5 to 20 with a foot morpheme for numbers 11 to 20. Alternate word for 20 too and 40 is 2 x 20.
Austronesian Piu Morobe 2', 5, 20 digit tally?, 6 to 9 is 'and 1', 'and 2' implying hand and 1 etc 1, 2, 3, 5, 20? Implied digit tally for construction of 6 to 9 are implied hand 'and 1', 'and 2' etc
Austronesian South Watut Morobe 2, 5, 20 digit tally, alternatives 5=2+2+1, 5?, 10? 1, 2, 5 Digit tally with 2, 5, 20 cycles. Some data indicate use of hand morphemes from 5 to 20 whereas others suggest 5=2+2+1, meaning for 5, 10 unknown
Austronesian Adzera Morobe 2, 5, 20 digit tally from 10; 1 to 9 combine 1 and 2 1, 2, 5? 1 to 9 follow a 2 cycle with numbers like 6 being 2+2+2.
After 10, digit tally with tallying as two hands and toes until 20 is reached as 'my hands two' and 'my feet two'
Austronesian Nenaya Morobe 2, 5 ?, 20 pair counting. digit tally 1, 2, 3, (5),20 2, 20 cycle system with 5 = 2+2+1 but 10 to 19 imply 5 x 2 plus construction
Austronesian Gapapaiwa Milne Bay 2', 5, 20 digit tally 4=2+2, 7 to 9 = x + n 1, 2, 3, 5, 20 modified 2 cycle, 5, and 20 cycles
4=2+2, 7 to 9 = X + N
Austronesian Wogeo East Sepik 4 8 = 4x2, 12 = 4x3 1 to 4 Austronesian language spoken on the islands with a similar 4 cycle system, One variation was a morpheme plus 4 for 16, seemingly adding on to 3x4
Austronesian Bam East Sepik 4 8 = 4x2, 12 = 4x3 1 to 4 4 cycle system, Austronesian. Uses for 16 and 20 two versions for hand 'vat' for 4 and 'lim' for 5.
Austronesian Ham Madang 4 ?, 5 digit tally 1 to 4,5? Words for 1 to 4 with 5 = 4 + 1 but then the use of hand for numbers 6 to 9 suggesting both a 4 cycle and 5 cycle or some modification over time
Austronesian Kuni Central 5 ?   1 to 5? Insufficient data to confirm as Motu type as numerals from 6 to 9 are not available
Austronesian Kis East Sepik 5? ? 1 to 5 Insufficient data to determine system
Austronesian Malalamai Madang 5, ? 10 = 5 x 2 1 to 5 5 cycle but insufficient data to say more than that 10=5x2
Austronesian Medebur Madang 5, ? digit tally, (?) 1 to 5 1 to 5 numerals but insufficient data to confirm digit tally system
Austronesian Bilbil Madang 5, ? digit tally 1 to 5 digit tally system with 5 cycle and further cycles are unsure, 6 to 9 is a consistent morpheme + 1 to 4 but it is not hand morpheme
Austronesian Biliau Madang 5, ? digit tally 1 to 5 5 cycle but insufficient data to determine further cycles
Austronesian Megiar Madang 5 digit tally (to 10) 1 to 5 5 cycle system with hand morphemes and words to 5 with some suggestion of 10 but not in recent information
Austronesian Bwaidoka Milne Bay 5,   1 to 5 5 cycle but lack of information
Austronesian Wataluma Milne Bay 5 digit tally with 1 to 5 5 cycle with counting on hands and feet,The informant gives an alternative for 12, and an alternative for 24 12 x 2 which suggests that certain objects may be counted in groups of 12; no further details are given however.
Austronesian Mambu, East Timor   5, 10 6 to 9 = 5 + n , n= 1 to 4; decades 1 to 5, 10 5, 10 cycles with regular decades
Austronesian Magori Central 5, 10 6 to 9 is 5 + n where n is 1 to 4 1 to 5, 10  
Austronesian Kaiep East Sepik 5, 10 6 to 9 are 5+n where n = 1 to 4 1 to 5, 10 Digit tally, Austronesian with a less familiar numeral for 4 but 5 is lim. When tallying 5 is thumb of left hand and 6 is thumb of right hand.
Austronesian Kairiru East Sepik 5, 10 6 to 9 is 5 + n, where n= 1 to 4 1 to 5, 10 5 and 10 cycle, Austronesian
Austronesian Sepa Madang 5, 10, ? digit tally? 1 TO 5, 10? Hand and 5 use "lima", word for 10 but possibly digit tally
Austronesian Takia Madang 5, 10 digit tally 1 to 5, 10 5 and possible 20 cycle digit tally system with hand and feet morpheme more akin to the Papuan systems. Change to numeral without hand morpheme used then for 6 to 9 as 5 + n, where n= 1 to 4
Austronesian Budibud Milne Bay 5, 10 10-10 or 10s two, 10s three, teens different 1 to 5, 10 10s two , 10s three; variation in 2, 3, 4 in teens,
Austronesian Doga Milne Bay 5, 10 numerals, 5 has hand morph, 10 is man 1 to 5, 10 numerals for 1-5, 10 is man
Austronesian Yamap Morobe 5, 10 ? digit tally? 1 to5, 10 5 cycle and probably 10 cycle system as there is a distinct word for 10. 5 to 9 contain a hand morphene
Austronesian Lavongai New Ireland 5, 10 6 to 9 = 5 + n 1 to 5, 10 5 and 10 cycles
Austronesian Tigak New Ireland 5, 10 6 to 9 = 5 + n 1 to 5, 10 5 qnd 10 cycle with 6=5+1, 7=5+2
Austronesian Nalik New Ireland 5, 10 6 to 9 = [x] +n 1 to 5, 10 5 and 10 cycles, variations for 6 = a numeral plus 1 etc
fractions and first three ordinals
Austronesian Teop North Solomons 5, 10 6 to 9= (5) + n 1 to 5, 10 The numerals for 1 to 5, are used for 6 to 9 by what is added 5. Similarly 11 to 19 as 10 + n with 15 being 10 + 5. The decades are products of 10.
Austronesian Timputz North Solomons 5, 10 6 to 9 = 5 + n where n= 1 to 4 1 to 5, 10 Decades to 50 are nx10; There are 1 to 5 numerals with 6 to 9 using these numerals, 15 = 10 + 5. Several words are not typically AN, nor is the word for hand used.
Austronesian Hahon North Solomons 5, 10 6 to 9 = 5 + n, with n=1to 4 1 to 5, 10  
Austronesian Ulau-Suain Sandaun 5, 10 6 to 9 = 5 + n where n= 1 to 4 1 to 5, 10  
Austronesian Gimi-Agerlep-Palik West New Britain 5, 10 6 to 10, n + x 1 to 5 ,10 5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4
Austronesian Gimi-Agerlep-Palik West New Britain 5, 10 6 to 10, n + x 1 to 5 ,10 5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4
Austronesian Gimi-Agerlep-Palik West New Britain 5, 10 6 to 10, n + x 1 to 5 ,10 5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4
Austronesian Aria West New Britain 5, 10 6 to 10, x + n 1 to 5, 10 5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4
Austronesian Mok West New Britain 5, 10 6 to 10, x + n 1 to 5, 10 5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4
Austronesian Merambera West New Britain 5, 10 6 to 8: x + n 1 to 5, 9, 10 5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4, regular decades 10 x n where n is 1 to 9
Austronesian Merambera West New Britain 5, 10 6 to 8: x + n 1 to 5, 9, 10 5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4, regular decades 10 x n where n is 1 to 9
Austronesian Mangsing West New Britain 5, 10 6 to 9: 5 + n 1 to 5, 10 5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4, regular decades 10 x n where n is 1 to 9
Austronesian Bebeli West New Britain 5, 10 6 to 9: (5) + n 1 to 5, 10 5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4, with additional morphemes
Austronesian Harua West New Britain 5, 10 6 to 9: 5 + n 1 to 5, 10 5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4, regular decades 10 x n where n is 1 to 9 and teens as clearly one ten and so many ones
Austronesian Lesing-Atui West New Britain 5, 10 6 to 9: 5 + n 1 to 5, 10 5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4, regular decades 10 x n where n is 1 to 9 with variation in the morpheme for 10 in the decades
Austronesian Asengseng West New Britain 5, 10 ? 6 to 9, 5 + n 1 to 5, 10 ? 5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4
Austronesian Bariai West New Britain 5, 10 6 to 9: 5 + n 1 to 5, 10, 100 5, 10 cycles with number word for 100.
6 to 9 includes a 5 morpheme.
Objects counted in fours, e.g. yams, taros, coconuts
Austronesian Avau West New Britain 5, 10 6 to 9: n + x 1 to 5, 10 5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4, regular decades 10 x n where n is 1 to 9
Austronesian Akolet West New Britain 5, 10 6 to 9: n + x 1 to 5, 10 5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4, regular decades 10 x n where n is 1 to 9
Austronesian Lamogai-Rauto-Ivanga West New Britain 5, 10 6 to 9 : n + x 1 to 5, 100 ? 5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4
distinct word for 100 similar to other languages among the recent informants
Austronesian Lamogai-Rauto-Ivanga West New Britain 5, 10 6 to 9 : x + n' 1 to 5, 1 100 ? 5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4
distinct word for 100 similar to other languages among the recent informants
Austronesian Bola West New Britain 5, 10 6 to 9, x + n 1 to 5 ,10 5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4
Austronesian Arove West New Britain 5, 10 6 to 9, x + n 1 to 5, 10, 100 5, 10, 100 cycle with 6 to 9 being a 5 plus 1 to 4 construction. 100 is given as 10 decades but also with a distinct numeral
Austronesian Mekeo Central 5, 10, 100 6 to 9 is 5 + n where n = 1 to 4 1 to 5, 10, 100 6 to 9 is 5 + n where n = 1 to 4.
Teens and decades are regular with decades incorporating an additional morpheme as well as 10 and numbers 1 to 9
Austronesian Muyuw Milne Bay 5, 10, 100   1 to 5, 10, 100 Classifiers mentioned based on tree , house, animals/females. Classifiers not generally used for 1. Also use numeral prefixes for decands and hundreds
Austronesian Kilivila Milne Bay 5, 10, 100 6 to 9 = 5+n, 5 is not a hand morph 1-5, 10, 100 Classifiers for range of groups denoted by suffixes
5, 10, 100 with decades and hundreds regular
Austronesian Kilivila Milne Bay 5, 10, 100 6 to 9 = 5+n, 5 is not a hand morph 1-5, 10, 100 Classifiers for range of groups denoted by suffixes
5, 10, 100 with decades and hundreds regular
Austronesian Muyuw Milne Bay 5, 10, 100 classifiers 1 to 5, 10, 100 Classifiers mentioned based on tree , house, animals/females. Classifiers not generally used for 1. Also use numeral prefixes for decands and hundreds
Austronesian Kara New Ireland 5, 10, 100 6, 8, 9 = x + n 1 to 5, (7), 10, 11 5, 10, 100 with number 6, 8, 9 having a word plus 1, 3 and 4
Austronesian Tiang New Ireland 5, 10, 100 6 to 9 = 5 + n 1 to 5, 10, 100 5, 10, 100 with regular decades
Austronesian Barok New Ireland 5, 10, 100 6 to 9 is 5 + n 1 to 5, 10, 100 5, 10, 100 cycles with 6=5 +1, but also count in fours for certain objects
Austronesian Patpatar New Ireland 5, 10, 100 6 to 9 is [5] = n 1 to 5, 10, 100 5, 10, 100 system with odd decades made by adding 10 to the even decade, some fractions and ordinal numbers like second, lima used for hand and 5
Austronesian Tabar New Ireland 5, 10, 100 6 to 9 = [x]+n 1 to 5, 10, 100 5, 10, 100 cycles with 6 = number plus 1 etc, also added a suffix to give ordinal words like second, and some fractions
Austronesian Tumleo Sandaun 5, 10, 100 6 to 9 = 5+n where n= 1 to 4, 1 to 5, 10, 100 The first five numerals are pre-fixed with 'pa-' in one set of data indicate that this has the meaning of 'only' Those for 3 and 5, respectively 'tul' and 'leim' are recognisably AN in character; those for 1, 2 and 4, however, are not noticeably AN, that for 2, 'lo' or 'lou', having only a slight resemblance to the 'lua' or 'rua' commonly found in AN languages.
Austronesian Ali Sandaun 5, 10, 100 6 to 9 = 5 + n where n= 1 to 4 1 to 5, 10, 100 There are five distinct words for the first five numerals and those for 2, 3 and 5, are similar to the characteristic AN numerals. The numeral 5, 'lim' is not an Ali hand morpheme. 6 to 9 has the form '5 + n' where n takes the values 1 to 4.
Austronesian Kaliai-Kove-Kombe West New Britain 5, 10, 100 6 to 9: 5 + n 1 to 5, 10, 100 5, 10, 100 cycles with 6 to 9 being combination of 5 and 1 to 4. Regular decades, two dialects have reasonable agreement
Austronesian Kaliai-Kove-Kombe West New Britain 5, 10, 100 6 to 9: 5 + n 1 to 5, 10, 100 5, 10, 100 cycles with 6 to 9 being combination of 5 and 1 to 4. Regular decades, two dialects have reasonable agreement
Austronesian Bali-Vitu West New Britain 5, 10 ,100 6 to 9: x + n 1 to 5, 10, 100 5, 10, 100 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4. Newer data gives teens
Austronesian Bali-Vitu West New Britain 5, 10 ,100 6 to 9: x + n 1 to 5, 10, 100 5, 10, 100 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4. Newer data gives teens
Austronesian Keapara Central 5, 10, 100, 1000 6=2x3, 7=2x3+1, 8=2x4, 9=2x4+1 1 to 5, 10, 100 Beginning as a 5 cycle, it develops as base 10. Words are quite distinct for each dialect. Each also has different words for the different objects such as coconuts being counted. Pairs are used for 6 and 8 with one added for 7 and 9 except for Hula which has 7=2x4-1 and 9=10-1 as a modified Manus type.
Austronesian Keapara Central 5, 10, 100, 1000 6=2x3, 7=2x4-1,8=2x4, 9=10-1 1 to 5, 10, 100, 1000 Beginning as a 5 cycle, it develops as base 10. Words are quite distinct for each dialect. Each also has different words for the different objects such as coconuts being counted. Pairs are used for 6 and 8 with one added for 7 and 9 except for Hula which has 7=2x4-1 and 9=10-1 as a modified Manus type.
Austronesian Sinagoro Central 5, 10, 100, 1000 6 to 9 is 5 + n where n = 1 to 4 1 to 5, 10, 100, 1000 6 to 9 are both Motu type using 6 to 9 is 2x3, 2x3+1, 2x4, 2x4+1 and 6 to 9 is 5 + n where n is 1 to 4.
Data given on ordinals using possible prefixes and suffixes. Teens and decades are regular and built on 10
Austronesian Tolai East New Britain 5, 10, 100, 1000 6 to 9 = x + n 1 to 5, 10, 100, 1000 6 to 9 = x + n where x is a morpheme and n is 1 to 4
Special ways to count common collections of objects like eggs, shell money which are large numbers
Ordinals developed by using suffices and the notion of fraction is parts so feasible to refer to a fraction as number of parts
Austronesian Mengen East New Britain 5, 10, 20 6 to 9: 5 + n 1 to 5, 10, 20 Digit tally system with 5, 10, 20 cycles and clearly use of thumbs and fingers
Austronesian Mengen East New Britain 5, 10, 20 6 to 9: 5 + n 1 to 5, 10, 20 Digit tally system with 5, 10, 20 cycles and clearly use of thumbs and fingers
Austronesian Mamusu-Kakuna East New Britain 5, 10, 20 6 to 9: n+ x 1 to 5, 10, 20 Digit tally system with 5, 10, 20 cycles and clearly use of thumbs and fingers
Austronesian Uvol East New Britain 5, 10, 20 ? 6 to 9: x + n 1 to 5, 10, 20 5, 10, 20 cycles with hand morpheme for 5 and both 10 and 20 containing a man morpheme. digit tally
Austronesian Lukep Madang 5, 10, 20 ? 40 = 10 x 4 or 20 x 2 1 to 5, 10, 20, ? 5 and 10 cycles and 40 is either 4x10 or 2x20 so further cycles are unclear
Austronesian Manam Madang 5, 10, 20 ? digit tally, no decade data, 6 to 9=5+n 1 to 5, 10, 20 typical Austronesian words with 5, 10 and may be 20 cycle system
Austronesian Manam Madang       digit tally with 10 and 20
Austronesian Bohutu Milne Bay 5, 10 ?, 20 10 is not 5+5, 1 to 5, 10, 20 2 to 4 are not typically Austronesian,
Austronesian Suau Milne Bay 5, 10, 20 6 to 9 = 5 + n, n=1 to 4 1 to 5, 10, 20 5, 10, 20 cycles or 5, 20 depending on the dialect. Man is part of 20 and 100 is 5 man complete indicating a 20 cycle system
Many dialects with data comparisons given
6 to 9 is five plus n where n= 1 to 4
Austronesian Suau Milne Bay 5, 10, 20 6 to 9 = 5 + n, n=1 to 4 1 to 5, 10, 20 5, 10, 20 cycles or 5, 20 depending on the dialect. Man is part of 20 and 100 is 5 man complete indicating a 20 cycle system
Many dialects with data comparisons given
6 to 9 is five plus n where n= 1 to 4
Austronesian Tubetube Milne Bay 5, 10, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 10, 20 5, 10, 20 data for use of numeral for 10 but then 20 is man complete rather than 10x2
Austronesian Tubetube Milne Bay 5, 10, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 10, 20 5, 10, 20 data for use of numeral for 10 but then 20 is man complete rather than 10x2
Austronesian Mutu Morobe 5, 10, 20 6 to 9 = 5 + n 1 to 5, 10, 20 5 and 10 are numeral words. 6 to 9 are 5 + n. 100 is common with neighbours with whom they trade. 10 is similar to many New Britain, New Ireland and Manus words for 10.
Austronesian Barim Morobe 5, 10, 20 6 to 9 = 5 + n 1 to 5, 10, 20 5 numerals then 5 to 9 are 5 +n, 10 to 19 is 10+n. 20 is man one and there are multiples of 20 with intermediate words as 20 + n etc
Austronesian Sio Morobe 5, 10, 20 6 to 9 = 5 + n 1 to 5, 10, 20 5, 10, 20 cycle system so additional numeral for 10, 5 has had morpheme
Austronesian Bukauac Morobe 5, 10, 20 6 to 9 = 5+n, where n=1 to 4, teens =10+n where n=1 to 9, digit tally? 1 to 5, 10, 20 5, 10, 20 cycle system with distinct word for 10 and a hand morpheme for 5 to 9. 20 either is man whole or it has a hand morpheme.
Austronesian Labu Morobe 5, 10, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 10, 20 digit tally with 5, 10, 20 cycle. 6 to 9 are 5+n where n is 1 to 4, 10 is a distinct numeral and numbers like 30 are 20 + 10
Austronesian Hote Morobe 5, 10, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 10, 20 5, 10, 20 cycle digit tally system with hand morpheme used in 5 to 9 but distinct words for 10 and 20 which has the gloss of 'one whole'
Austronesian Misim Morobe 5, 10, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 10, 20 5, 10, 20 cycle digit tally system with 5 to 9 containing a hand morpheme but 10 and 20 have distinct words, that for 20 meaning 'whole one'.
Austronesian Kela Morobe 5, 10, 20 ? digit tally 1 to 5, 10, 20? Digit tally Insufficient data to confirm a 10 and 20 cycle but clearly a 5 cycle
Austronesian Kapin Morobe 5, 10 ?, 20 digit tally from 10 1 to 5 5, 10? 20 cycle implied by the data
Austronesian Ubir Oro 5, 10, 20 ? 1 to 5, 10, 20 5, 10, 20 cycles but it is unclear what system best describes the system. Some Papuan influence perhaps with 4=2+2
Austronesian Malew-Kilenge West New Britain 5, 10, 20, 100 ? 6 to 9: 5 + n 1 to 5, 10, 20, 100 5, 10, 20, 100 cycles and 6 to 9 include the 5 morpheme. Taros are counted in pairs and coconuts in fours, in which case the pair or group is numbered off.
Austronesian Malew-Kilenge West New Britain 5, 10, 20, 100 ? 6 to 9: 5 + n 1 to 5, 10, 20, 100 5, 10, 20, 100 cycles and 6 to 9 include the 5 morpheme. Taros are counted in pairs and coconuts in fours, in which case the pair or group is numbered off.
Austronesian Suau Milne Bay 5, 10, 20 or 5, 20 6 to 9 = 5 + n, n=1 to 4 1 to 5, 10, 20 5, 10, 20 cycles or 5, 20 depending on the dialect. Man is part of 20 and 100 is 5 man complete indicating a 20 cycle system
Many dialects with data comparisons given
6 to 9 is five plus n where n= 1 to 4
Austronesian Dobu Milne Bay 5, 10, 20 or 5,10 digit tally 1 to 5, 10, 20 or 1-5, 10 digit tally, use ordinals, unlikely to use counting for comparing, for example, shell money but 'size' is used
Austronesian Dobu Milne Bay 5, 10, 20 or 5,10 digit tally 1 to 5, 10, 20 or 1-5, 10 digit tally, use ordinals, unlikely to use counting for comparing, for example, shell money but 'size' is used
Austronesian Takia Madang 5, 20 ? digit tally 1 to 5 5 and possible 20 cycle digit tally system with hand and feet morpheme more akin to the Papuan systems. Change to numeral without hand morpheme used then for 6 to 9 as 5 + n, where n= 1 to 4
Austronesian Gedaged Madang 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5 Hand and foot morphemes used in this 2, 5, 20 cycle digit tally system
Austronesian Gedaged Madang 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5 Hand and foot morphemes used in this 2, 5, 20 cycle digit tally system
Austronesian Kalokalo Milne Bay 5, 20 10=5+5 1 to 5,20 5, 20 cycles
Austronesian Wagawaga Milne Bay 5, 20 6 to 9 = 5 + x + b, 10= 2 hands, 40=20x2 1 to 5, 20 6 to 9 = 5 + x + b, 10= 2 hands, 40=20x2
Austronesian Bunama Milne Bay 5, 20 6 to 9 = x+n, 5 & 10 have hand morph, 20 has man 1 to 5, 20 digit tally with 5, 20 cycles
Austronesian Kehelala Milne Bay 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 digit tally system with 5, 20 pattern using hands and feet
Austronesian Kehelala Milne Bay 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 digit tally system with 5, 20 pattern using hands and feet
Austronesian Kurada Milne Bay 5, 20 digit tally, 6 to 9 = x+n 1-5, 20 digit tally, with 5, 20 cycles
Austronesian Iduna Milne Bay 5, 20? hand in 5 and 10 1 to 5, 20? 5 cycle,
Austronesian Mukawa Milne Bay 5, 20 hand, man for 20, digit tally 1 to 5, 20 Digit tally with morphene for man in 20.
5, 20 cycles
Austronesian Mukawa Milne Bay 5, 20 hand, man one 1 to 5, 20 Digit tally with morphene for man in 20.
5, 20 cycles
Austronesian Tami Morobe 5, 20 6 to 9 is 5 + n, 11 to 19, teens :10+n' 1 to 5, 20 5, 20 cycle. 6 to 9 is 5 + n, 11 to 19, teens :10+n'
Austronesian Mangap Morobe 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 While 5 is a numeral word, 20 seems to derive from man.
Austronesian Mumeng Morobe 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 A modified 2 cycle with continuing 5, 20 cycles of a digit tally system. There are slight variations between dialects so a hand in one dialect is half implying half of the two hands.
Austronesian Kaiwa Morobe 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 5, 20 cycle digit tally system with hand and leg morphemes used as well as whole man for 20
Austronesian Numbami Morobe 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 5, 10, 20 cycles in digit tally system with hand morpheme. Leg morpheme in 15 and a clear use of 20 in 20, 40, 60 as man one, man two, man three.
Austronesian Malasanga Morobe 5, 20 digit tally, 6 to 9=5+n, 10=2x5, 1 to 5, 20 5, 20 digit tally system
Austronesian Maisin Oro 5, 20 digit tally 1 t o 5, 20 This language is difficult to classify but may have been an Austronesian language heavily influenced by Papuan language and developing a 5, 20 digit tally system
Austronesian Arifama-Miniafia Oro 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 5, 20 cycle system with hand morpheme likely in 5
Austronesian Arifama-Miniafia Oro 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 5, 20 cycle system with hand morpheme likely in 5
Austronesian Gitua Morobe 5, 20, 100 ? digit tally; 6 to 9 = 5+n; 40 = 2 men etc 1 to 5, 20, 100 Digit tally system with 5 having a hand morph, 10 being 2 hands, 11 to 20 having foot morphs, 40 is 2 men etc
Austronesian Taupota Milne Bay 5, 20 or 2', 5, 20   1 to 5, 20 or 1 to 3, 5, 20 5, 20 or modified 2 5, 20 cycle apparent from the two lots of data
Austronesian Kaulong West New Britain 5 or 5, 10 6 to 10, n + x 1 to 5 5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4
Austronesian Kaulong West New Britain 5 or 5, 10 6 to 10, n + x 1 to 5 5 and 10 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4
Austronesian Nauna Manus 5,10,100 6 to 9:5+n,20 = 2 x 10 1 to 5,10,100 Nauna has a (5,10) cyclic structure which is unusual among the Manus counting systems. The word for 5, 'tuten' is also unusual and is not related to the AN form 'lima' and its variations. Only one word for a fraction was reported, i.e the word for a 'half' which is 'selehu'. The 'hand' morpheme in Nauna is '-min-' which is not related to the word for 5, 'tuten'.
Austronesian Seimat Manus 5,20 9=10-1 1 to 5,20 5 and 20 cycles with extensive use of classifiers to distinguish numbers of different classes of objects
Austronesian Yabim Morobe digit tally 5, 20 1 to 5, 20 5, 20 cycle
Papuan Laua Central ? ? 1 to 5 Distinct numerals for 1 to 4. Insufficient data to confirm 5 cycle
Papuan Owiniga East Sepik ? ? 1 to 4, ?  
Papuan Walio East Sepik ? ? 1 to 4, ? Insufficient data
Papuan Rocky Peak East Sepik ? ? 1 to 5, ? No body morphemes to indicate whether it might be a digit tally or body-part tally system
Papuan Iteri East Sepik ? ? 1 to 5?, ? No hand morphemes so not possible to decide whether it might be digit tally or body-part tally system with a lack of data
Papuan Bo East Sepik ? ? 1 to 5, ? not clear about use of body parts so cannot tell if digit tally or body part tally system, lack of data
Papuan Nimo East Sepik ? ? 1 to 5?, ? To little data to decide system
Papuan Papi East Sepik ? ? 1 to 5, ? Insufficient data to decide type of system
Papuan Iwam East Sepik ? ? 1 to 5, 10? Insufficient data to confirm it might be a body-part tally type
Papuan Piame East Sepik ? body-part tally 1 to 10, ? From thumb to shoulder used in body-part tally system but not sufficient data to determine cycle
Papuan Lembena Enga -- -- -- Insufficient data to confirm a 10 cycle
Papuan Wapi Enga -- -- --  
Papuan Ivori Gulf ? ? 1 to 5 Insufficient data to determine system, words for 1 to 5
Papuan Lohiki Gulf ? ? 1 to 5, 10 Insufficient data to determine system but words for 1 to 5 and 10
Papuan Mena Gulf ? ? 1 to 7, 10 insufficient data to decide system
Papuan Minanibai Gulf ? body-part tally? ? Insufficient data to confirm a body-part tally system
Papuan Omati Gulf ? body-part tally? 1 to 10 Insufficient data to confirm body-part tally system
Papuan Pawaia Gulf ? body-part tally? 1 to 5, 10 Possible body-part tally sysem
Papuan Rao Madang ? (?) 1 to 4, other Insufficient data to determine system but words for 1 to 4
Papuan Dimer Madang ? ? 1 to 4,5(?) Insufficient data to determine data but some words for 1, 2, 5
Papuan Usino Madang ? ? 1 to 5 ? Insufficient data to determine counting system
Papuan Urigina Madang ? ? 1 to 5 ?  
Papuan Tauya Madang ? 4 = 2 + 2 1 2 3 5 2 cycle but insufficient data to determine system
Papuan Biyom Madang ? body-part tally? 1 to 5 ? Insufficient data to confirm a body part tally system
Papuan Yele Milne Bay       Borrowing of 'words' from neighbouring AN suffixes. Particularly difficult sounds in language making it difficult to reproduce consistently, evidence of a 4-cycle system especially between 5000 and 9000
Papuan Yele Milne Bay   4-cycle inside 10 for 1000s 1 to 10, Borrowing of 'words' from neighbouring AN suffixes. Particularly difficult sounds in language making it difficult to reproduce consistently, evidence of a 4-cycle system especially between 5000 and 9000
Papuan Mape Morobe   digit tally, 3=2+1, 4=2+2 1, 2, 5, 20 Digit tally system with hand morpheme
Papuan Buin North Solomons       Noun classifiers are used so there are different words for 1 to 6 depending on the classifier. 7=10-3; 8=10-2. It has a basic cycle of 10, 100 and is a Papuan language. The numbers 11 to 19 have a consistent pattern and there are clear sets for decades and hundreds. There are usually 3 morphs associated with noun set.
Papuan Konua North Solomons ? - 1 to 5, ?, 10  
Papuan Keriaka North Solomons -- ? 1 to 5,?, 10  
Papuan Busa Sandaun ? ? 1 to 5  
Papuan Musian Sandaun ?   1 to 5, 10  
Papuan Kilmeri Sandaun ? 5=2+2+1 1 to 7  
Papuan Tuwari Sandaun ? body parts 1 to 14? Body parts system with words at least to 10
Papuan Baibai Sandaun ? body parts? 1 to 5  
Papuan Nagatman Sandaun ? body parts 1 to 5  
Papuan Kwomtari Sandaun ? body-parts 1 to 5  
Papuan Sau Southern Highlands       possibly 4 or 5 cycle system
Papuan Kaluli Southern Highlands   body-part tally   Limited words and 5 and 10 do not include a hand morph so more likely body-part than digit tally
Papuan Kasua Southern Highlands   body-part tally   five has no hand morph so unlikely to be digit tally system
Papuan Lower Morehead (Peremka Western       The only data derive from the Rev. E.B. Riley's vocabularies (Riley & Ray, 1930, pp. 849-50, Ray, 1923, p.343) one of which is 'Peremka', an alternative name for Lower Morehead. The number words from the Peremka vocabulary are 1-neambi, 2-yendar, 5-neambi?
Papuan Upper Morehead Western ? ? 1 to 5 Data available in Riley and Ray, 1930, pp. 849-50 and Ray, 1923, p. 343
Papuan Boazi Western ? ? 1 to 5, 10 Lack of available data to finalise results
Papuan Nambu Western     see other data 2 cycle, digit tally likely; many records with a number of variations
Papuan Tao-Suamato Western ? body-part tally 1 to 5, 10 Body part tally
Papuan Beami Western   not known, possibly body-part tally   not known but no hand morphene nor two cycle.
Papuan Konai Western   possible body part as not same as digit tally numerals, no hand morphene Possible body part as not same as digit tally with no hand morphene but insufficient data
Papuan Enga Enga 10 8=10-2?,9=10-1? 1 to 7, 10 Data from different sources. Initially there were sequences of cycles of 4 with each sequence given a name. It appears to be a modified 60-cycle system. Early data suggests a body-part tallying system with 12 as nose. Analysis is difficult due to its use now mainly in infrequent ceremonies A power of two beginning with cycles of 2, 4, and 8 noted.
Papuan Orokolo Gulf 10 converted body part 1 to 10 body part tally of 27 parts with modification to accommodate introduced decimal system, abandoning at 10
Papuan Kuot New Ireland 10 30=3x10, 50=5 x 10, 18=10+5+3 1 to 10, 5, 10 cycles with decades and higher teens eg. 18=10+5+3 with similar pattern for other decades
Papuan Anem West New Britain 10 20 = 10 x 2 1 to 10, 100 10 cycle with regular decades as products of 10
Papuan Buin North Solomons 10, 100 7=10-3, 8=10-2 1 to 6, 9 Noun classifiers are used so there are different words for 1 to 6 depending on the classifier. 7=10-3; 8=10-2. It has a basic cycle of 10, 100 and is a Papuan language. The numbers 11 to 19 have a consistent pattern and there are clear sets for decades and hundreds. There are usually 3 morphs associated with noun set.
Papuan Ekagi West Papua 10, 20, 60 decades 1 to 10, 20, 30, 50, 60, 100 Unusual Papuan system with 10 base. However, higher cycles also of 20 and 60 but no evidence of a body-part tally system. It is more likely to be a hybrid of a 6 cycle and 10 cycle resulting from interactions with other systems.
Papuan Ama East Sepik 12 ? body-part tally 1 to 6, 7, 9, 11 Body-part tally is unusual in including the navel and switching from left and right breast and shoulders. Unusual if only a system up to 12 but no more data suggested, only 'many'
Papuan Danu Southern Highlands 14 body part tally 1 to 14 14 cycle asymmetric body part tally system moving up one side and across to the eye and ear of the other side.
Papuan Keuru Gulf 15 ? digit tally? 1 to 14, 20 unusual digit tally as it uses finger words for the first five numerals and 5 does not contain a hand morphene, cycle of 15
Papuan Huli Southern Highlands 15 or 27 two hands and a foot tally, probably from body-part tally
suffixes
1 to 14 Classifiers and 15 cycle system using fingers and toes but possibly it was originally a body-part tally system. The system also uses suffixes for cardinal, ordinal numbers and time. Ordinal numbers are often used for enumeration, e.g. in exchanges or gardens
Papuan Agob Western 18 body part tally 1 to 9 Numerals for 1, with 1 to 4 as combinations . 5 = 2+2+1 and not a known hand morphene. Also a body part tally system. By Lean's time only numerals were used in various combinations..
Papuan Gidra Western 19 body part tally 1 to 10 body part replaced by digit tally systems apparently
Papuan Bine Western 19 body part tally, 4=2+2 1, 2, 3, 5 to 10 3 cycle. Older body-part system. Also some 2 cycle and hybrid 2 and 3 cycle data
Papuan Tauade Central 2   1, 2 2 cycle system with 6 to 10 having 5 morphemes
Papuan Kamasau East Sepik 2 5 = 2+2+1 1, 2 5 = 2+2+1, insufficient data to decide if it is a digit tally
Papuan Muniwara East Sepik 2 5 = 2+2+1 1, 2 2 cycle
Papuan North-Eastern Kiwai Gulf 2 5=2+2+1 1, 2 2 cycle
Papuan Podopa Gulf 2 5=2+2+1, body tally ? 1, 2 2 cycle but some indication of a body-tally system, 6 is 2+2+2, 10 is 2 repeated five times
Papuan Mikarew Madang 2', ? 1,2,3=2+1, 4=2+2 1, 2,? 2 cycle with 5=2+2+1
Papuan Garus Madang 2 3=2+1, 4=2+2, 6=3 *2 1,2 2 cycle system with 3 = 2+1, 4 = 2+2, 6 is given as 3 x 2 and also 2+2+2
Papuan Garuh Madang 2 3=2+1, 4=2+2, 6=3*2 1,2 2 cycle system with the following combinations:
3 = 2+1, 4 = 2 + 2, 6 = 3 x 2
Papuan Wanambre Madang 2 5=2+2+1 1,2 2 cycle but insufficient data to confirm it is a digit tally system
Papuan Kobon Madang 2', ? body-part tally with numeral set? 1,2,5 to ? 2 cycle system and probable 5 cycle
Papuan Waibuk Madang 2', ? numeral set / body-part tally 1,2,5,to ? There is a numeral set with 1, 2, 5 but not clear how far but seems to be a
Body-Part Tally system
Papuan Kalam Madang 2 numerical set 1,2 A body-part tally system with a 23- cycle, the symmetrical mid-point of the cycle being tallied at 12 at a point at a base of the throat. The left-hand side of the body and then the symmetrical right-hand counterparts are employed. The fingers using their names are tallied first and then the wrist (6), lower arm (7), elbow (8), upper arm (9), shoulder (10), and collar-bone (11).
Papuan Sona Milne Bay 2 ? 1, 2, 2+1, 2+2, 2+2+1 1, 2 appears to be 2 cycle and not 2, 5 cycle like other Dagan but limited data
Papuan Sona Milne Bay 2 1,2,3=2+1,4=2+2,
5=2+2+1
1, 2  
Papuan Ginuman Milne Bay 2, ? 3=2+1, 4=2+2 1, 2, 5, 10,? 2 cycle but not sufficient to give rest
Papuan Mamaa Morobe 2 ? 1, 2 Basic numeral set with 2, 4, and 5 being compounds of 1 and 2.
Papuan Mamaa Morobe 2 ? 1, 2 Basic numeral set with 2, 4, and 5 being compounds of 1 and 2.
Papuan Nuk Morobe 2 digit tally 1, 2, 10?, 20? 2 cycle but unsure of the other cycle
Papuan Yagawak Morobe 2 numeral set 1, 2 3 is '2 + 1', 4 is '2 + 1 + 1', 5 is '2 + 1 + 2', 6 is '2 + 1 + 2 + 1'; 10, however, is '2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2'.
Papuan Bam Morobe 2 numeral set 1, 2 2 cycle system with 3 is '2 + 1', 4 is '2 + 1 + 1', 5 is '2 + 1 + 2', 6 is '2 + 1 + 2 + 1'; 10, however, is '2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2'.
Papuan Amanab Sandaun 2 3=2+1, 4=2+2 1,2  
Papuan Oksapmin Sandaun 2 4=2+2 1, 2, 3? Body parts counting system of 27 parts with an additional 2 cycle counting system
Papuan Olo Sandaun 2 digit tally 1, 2 Digit tally system with cyclic pattern of 2, 5 and Frame Pattern of 1,2,5
Papuan Waia Western 2 ? 1, 2, 10 2 cycle but changing
Papuan Nambu Western 2 ? 1, 2, 5 2 cycle, digit tally likely; many records with a number of variations
Papuan Dorro Western 2 ? 1, 2, 5 2 cycle but data unclear to decide if body tally or digit tally
Papuan Suki Western 2' ?, 3=2+1 1, 2, 4, 5 2 cycle with possible words for 4 and 5 but probably not a digit tally system
Papuan Agob Western 2 3=2+1, 4=2+2, 1, 2 Numerals for 1, with 1 to 4 as combinations . 5 = 2+2+1 and not a known hand morphene. Also a body part tally system. By Lean's time only numerals were used in various combinations..
Papuan Miriam Western 2 4= 2+2, 5=2+2+1 1, 2 Body-part tally system and a 2 cycle system. 4 = 2+2, 5 = 2+2+1
Papuan Southern Kiwai Western 2 4=2+2, 5=2+2+1 1, 2 2 cycle with 5=2+2+1
Papuan Agob Western 2 5=2+2+1 1, 2 Numerals for 1, with 1 to 4 as combinations . 5 = 2+2+1 and not a known hand morphene. Also a body part tally system. By Lean's time only numerals were used in various combinations..
Papuan Lewada Western 2 5=2+2+1 1, 2 2 cycle include 5=2+2+1, variations on 3 as distinct numeral or 2+1
Papuan Tirio Western 2 5=2+2+1 1, 2 2 cycle with 1, 2, and 5=2+2+1
Papuan Wabuda Western 2 5=2+2+1 1, 2 2 cycle with 5=2+2+1 and pattern does not persist for 8-10 but more language needed to see if body part system
Papuan Bamu Kiwai Western 2 5=2+2+1 1, 2 2 cycle
Papuan Yonggom Western 2, ? body-part tally 1, 2, 4, to ? 2 cycle modified and probably body part system of 27 to 29
Papuan Yonggom Western 2', ? body-part tally 1, 2, 4, to ? 2 cycle modified and probably body part system of 27 to 29
Papuan Nambu Western 2' digit tally ? 1, 2, 3, 5 2 cycle, digit tally likely; many records with a number of variations
Papuan Nomad Western 2 pair counting 1, 2 Pair counting evident in two dialects with a possible body-part tally in another.
Papuan Morigi Gulf 2, 10 ? 3=2+1, 4=2+2 1, 2, 10 2 cycle, 10?
Papuan Anggor Sandaun 2, 23 body parts 1 to 12, 20 to 30  
Papuan Awin Western 2', 23 body-part tally 1, 2, 4, 12 2 cycle with 3=2+1 but from 5 on body part tally of 23 cycle matches part words
Papuan Giri Madang 2, ?; 26 3=2+1. 4=2+2, digit tally?;body part tally 1, 2 2 cycle and body--part tally system
Papuan Giri Madang 2, ?; 26 3=2+1. 4=2+2, digit tally?;body part tally 1,2 2 cycle and body--part tally system
Papuan Mianmin Sandaun 2, 27 3=2+1, 4=2+2+, 5=2+2+1, 6 =2+2+2+ 1, 2, 7 to 14 Body part tally system with 27 tally points and a 2 cycle system, the words for the first 6 numbers are the first words of the body-part tally system in one source
Papuan Mianmin Sandaun 2, 27 body parts 1, 2, 7 to 14 Body part tally system with 27 tally points and a 2 cycle system, the words for the first 6 numbers are the first words of the body-part tally system in one source
Papuan Faiwol Western 2, 27 body-part tally 1, 2, 5 to 14 Body part tally with numerals for 2, 3, 4 in a 2-cycle
Papuan Bumbita East Sepik 2', 3 ? 5=3+2 1, 2, 3 5=3+2little data
Papuan Wasembo Morobe 2, 3 ? numeral set? 1, 2, 3 4 = 2+2, 5= 2+3, 6=3+3
Papuan Som Morobe 2, 3 numeral system 1, 2, 3 A simple numeral system with a basic numeral set (1,2,3), other numerals being formed from compounds of these so that 3 is '2 + 1', 5 is '2 + 2 + 1', and 6 is '3 + 3'.
Papuan Gogodala Western 2', 3, 20 digit tally, 4=2+2 1, 2, 3, 5 4=2+2, morphene for hand appears in word for 5, 10 and 20 but word for man is not used with the meaning being hands and feet complete.
Papuan Southern Arapesh East Sepik 2', 3, 5 5=3+2, 6=3+3, 7=5+2 1, 2, 3, 5 classifiers for 17 groups and 3 cycle gives 4 is '2 + 2', 5 is '3 + 2', 6 is '3 + 3', 7 is '3 + 3 + 1', 8 is '(2 + 2) + (2 + 2)', 9 is '(3 + 2) + (2 + 2)', and 10 is '(3 + 2) + (3 + 2)'.
Papuan Toaripi Gulf 2', 3 ?, 5 digit tally 1, 2, 3, 5 digit tally, a numeral for 3 but 4=2+2
Papuan Ninggirum Western 2, 30 body part tally 1, 2, 4 to 15 Body part tally system with 30 cycle crossing directly across from left eye to right. Numerals for 1, 2 3=2+1, 4, 5
Papuan Mountain Arapesh East Sepik 2', 4 8=2x4, 12=3x4 1, 2, 4 4 cycle system with possible 10 cycle
Papuan Mountain Arapesh East Sepik 2', 4, 10? 3=2+1, 5=4+1 1, 2, 4, 10? 4 cycle system with possible 10 cycle
Papuan Hagen Western Highlands 2', 4, 8, 10 or 2', 4, 5, 8 5 to 7=4+n, 6=5+1or4+2, 7=5+2or4+3 1, 2, 3, 8, 10 ; 1, 2, 3, 5, 8 Cycle of 8 dominates but some use of 10 in some data sources, as used in pig feasts. Remnants of 2 and 4 cycles. Counting from small left finger bending fingers down, then after fingers, use right hand fingers before 2 thumbs. Gawigl (Kaugel) source is more straightforward and based on cycles of 4 and 28.
Papuan Koiari Central 2, 5   1, 2, 5 2 cycle but some data also provides a 5 cycle with a hand morpheme
Papuan Barai Central 2, 5 ?   1, 2, 5? 2 cycle pattern is clear but unsure of 5 cycle due to diversity in data sources. 10 and 20 are given with a morpheme for many in one source and 4, 5, 10 seem to have hand morphemes with 10 being hand hand
Papuan Barai Central 2, 5 ?   1, 2, 5? 2 cycle pattern is clear but unsure of 5 cycle due to diversity in data sources. 10 and 20 are given with a morpheme for many in one source and 4, 5, 10 seem to have hand morphemes with 10 being hand hand
Papuan Bauwaki Central 2, 5   1, 2, 5 2 cycle and apparently a 5 cycle but variation in the data suggests unreliability of some of the data.
Papuan Humene Central 2', 5 4=2+2, 6=5+1 1,2, 3, 5 modified 2 with a numeral for 3 and while 6 is 5+1, data for 7 and 8 appear to be in error
Papuan Kunimaipa Central 2, 5 6 to 9 = 5 + n where n= 1 to 4 1, 2, 4 2 and 5 cycles with 6 to 9 = 5 + n where n= 1 to 4
Papuan Mountain Koiari Central 2, 5 6 to 9 is 5 + n where n=1 to 4 1, 2, 5 consistency of 2 and 5 cycle with 'whole' used in one case for 5 followed by hand morpheme for remaining numbers
Papuan Mountain Koiari Central 2, 5 6 to 9 is 5 + n where n=1 to 4 1, 2, 5 consistency of 2 and 5 cycle with 'whole' used in one case for 5 followed by hand morpheme for remaining numbers
Papuan Abia Central 2, 5 6 to 9 is 5+n where n=1 to 4 1, 2, 5 2, 5 cycles with 6 to 9 is 5+n where n=1 to 4. Various records from the different dialects, high number of numeral words might suggest a body-part tally system in the 1914 data but no confirmation
Papuan Abia Central 2, 5 6 to 9 is 5+n where n=1 to 4 1, 2, 5 2, 5 cycles with 6 to 9 is 5+n where n=1 to 4. Various records from the different dialects, high number of numeral words might suggest a body-part tally system in the 1914 data but no confirmation
Papuan Binahara Central 2, 5 6 to 9 is 5 + n where n=1 to 4 1, 2, 5 2, 5 cycle system with 6=5+1, 7=5+2, 8=5+2+1, 9=5+2=2
Papuan Maria Central 2', 5 6 to 9 is 5 + n where n is 1 to 4 1, 2, 3, 5 2 cycle or possibly modified 2 if 3 is a separate morpheme, 6 = 5+1 etc
Papuan Kol-Sui East New Britain 2', 5 3 = 2 + 1 1, 2, 4, 5 Modified two cycle system with 4 and 5 having their own numerals
Papuan Mountain Arapesh East Sepik 2', 5 3=2+1, 6=5+1 1, 2, 4 4 cycle system with possible 10 cycle
Papuan Banaro East Sepik 2', 5 3 = 2+1, digit tally 1, 2, 4, 5 2 cycle modified, 3 = 2+1, digit tally likely with palm of hand morpheme in 5 and 10
Papuan Abaga Eastern Highlands 2, 5? - 1, 2, 5 2 cycle, 5 implied
Papuan Yagaria Eastern Highlands 2, 5 6 to 9 = 5 + n, where n = 1to 4, or combinations of 2 and 1 1, 2, 5, 20 2, 5 cycle system and apparently no 20, man cycle
Papuan Kerewo Gulf 2, 5 3=2+1. 4=2+2, 5=2+2+1? 1, 2, 5 2, 5 but insufficient data for decision on system
Papuan Toaripi Gulf 2', 5 digit tally, 1, 2, 3, 5 digit tally, a numeral for 3 but 4=2+2
Papuan Ankave Gulf 2, 5 digit tally 1, 2, 5 2 and 5 cycle, digit tally, 4=2+2, 5 and 10 have hand morphene
Papuan Raepa-Tati Gulf 2, 5 ? digit tally? 1, 2, 5 2 cycle and possibly digit tally
Papuan Hamtai Gulf 2, 5 digit tally 1, 2, (5) digit tally
Papuan Ipiko Gulf 2', 5? digit tally? 1 to 3, 5, 10 hand for 10 suggesting a digit tally system as well as 2 and 5 cycle but lack of data
Papuan Uaripi Gulf 2' ?, 5 digit tally 1 to 5 digit tally presumed with modified 2 cycle previously
Papuan Arigibi Gulf 2, 5 digit tally?, 10=5x2 1, 2, 5 2, 5 cycle with 10 = 2 x 5, with hand morphene suggesting digit tally but insufficient data to be conclusive
Papuan Gamei Madang 2', 5 3=2+1, digit tally 1, 2, 4, 5 2, 5 cycles,
Papuan Waskia Madang 2, 5 body-part? 1, 2, 5 2, 5 cycle system but insufficient data to confirm digit tally as some indication of body-part tally system
Papuan Bosman Madang 2', 5 digit tally, 3=2+1 1, 2, 4, 5 digit tally with a distinct word for 4 while 3 = 2 + 1
Papuan Bongu Madang 2', 5 ? digit tally, 4 = 2 + 2 1, 2, 3, 5 ? modified 2 cycle and a 5 cycle suggesting a digit tally system but 20 is not confirmed
Papuan Bongu Madang 2', 5 ? digit tally, 4 = 2 + 2 1 to 5 modified 2 cycle and a 5 cycle suggesting a digit tally system but 20 is not confirmed
Papuan Matepi Madang 2', 5 digit tally 4=2+2 1,2,3,5 modified 2 cycle and a 5 cycle to form a digit tally system
Papuan Igom Madang 2', 5 ? digital tally,3=2+1 1,2,4,5 5 is 2+2+1 or it contains a hand or arm morphene but also refers to 4-legged pig
Papuan Tangu Madang 2', 5 digital tally,3=2+1, 4=2+2 1,2,5 2, 5 cycle digit tally system
Papuan Tani Madang 2', 5 digital tally? 3=2+1, 4=2+2 1,2,5 2 and 5 cycle but insufficient data to confirm digit tally system
Papuan Gusan Morobe 2, 5 digit tally 1, 2, 4, 5 2, 5 cycles
Papuan Sauk Morobe 2, 5 ? digit tally 1, 2, 5? 2 cycle but insufficient data to determine 5 cycle
Papuan Finungwa Morobe 2, 5 digit tally 1, 2, 5?, Minimal data indicates a 2 cycle and a possible hand morpheme for 5 and the next few numbers
Papuan Nomu Morobe 2, 5 digit tally, 15=5 x 3, 20= 5 x 4 1, 2, 5 Digit tally with data suggesting that 15 and 20 are multiples of 5 which has a hand morphene. 10 also has a hand morphene.
Papuan Baruga Oro 2', 5 4 = 2 + 2, digit tally 1, 2, 3, 5 modified 2 cycle and 5 cycle system, digit tally
Papuan Bariji Oro 2', 5 4 = 2 + 2, digit tally 1, 2, 3, 5 modified 2 cycle and 5 cycle digit tally system
Papuan Yareba Oro 2', 5 4 = 2 + 2, digit tally 1, 2, 3, 5 modified 2 cycle and 5 cycle digit tally system
Papuan Mawae Oro 2', 5 4 = 3 + 1 or 4 = 2 + 2 1, 2, 3, 5 modified 2 cycle with a 5 cycle system
Papuan Aomie Oro 2, 5 digit tally 1, 2, 5 2, 5 digit tally system
Papuan Managalasi Oro 2, 5 digit tally 1, 2, 5 2, and 5 cycle digit tally system
Papuan Aeka Oro 2, 5 digit tally 1, 2, 5 2, 5 cycle digit tally system with common use of hand and foot morphemes
Papuan Orokaiva Oro 2, 5 digit tally 1, 2, 5 2, 5 cycle system with hand and foot morphemes
Papuan Siliput Sandaun 2, 5 ?   1, 2, 5 2-cyclic pattern for digit tally with possible 5 cycle
Papuan Fas Sandaun 2, 5 10=5+5 1,2,5  
Papuan Mehek Sandaun 2, 5 4=2+2 1, 2, 5 2 cycle with a further 5 cycle
Papuan Pagi Sandaun 2, 5 digit tally 1, 2  
Papuan Amto Sandaun 2, 5 digit tally? 1, 2, 3, 5  
Papuan Aru Sandaun 2, 5 digit tally 1, 2, 3, 5 Digit tally, uses foot or leg morpheme and has (5,20) cyclic pattern.
Papuan Aiku Sandaun 2, 5 digit tally 1, 2, 3, 5 A digit-tally system which utilizes both fingers and toes. One man is complete at 20 thus possesses a (2',5,20) cyclic pattern.
Papuan Olo Sandaun 2, 5 digit tally 1, 2, 5) Digit tally system with cyclic pattern of 2, 5 and Frame Pattern of 1,2,5
Papuan Elkei Sandaun 2, 5 digit tally 1, 2, 5 Digit tally system with cyclic pattern of 2, 5 and Frame Pattern of 1,2,5
Papuan Wiaki Sandaun 2, 5 digit tally 1, 2, 5 Digit tally system using arm and leg morphemes, and 2 and 5 cycles
Papuan Beli Sandaun 2, 5 digit tally 1, 2, 5 Digit tally system with 2 and 5 cycles
Papuan Yahang Sandaun 2, 5 digit tally 1, 2, 5 Digit tally system using fingers, toes and 20-cycle is a 'man' cycle, i.e. the fingers and toes of one man.
Papuan Valman Sandaun 2, 5 digit tally 1, 2, 5 Digit-tally system which uses tallying of both fingers and toes. 2 and 5 cycle and likely 20 cycle
Papuan Valman Sandaun 2, 5 digit tally 1, 2, 5 Digit-tally system which uses tallying of both fingers and toes. 2 and 5 cycle and likely 20 cycle
Papuan Warapu Sandaun 2, 5 digit tally 1,2,5 a digit-tally one which has a (2,5) cyclic pattern. There are distinct words for 1 and 2: 'moike' and 'riyepin' respectively. The numbers 3 and 4 are combinations of these: 3 has a '2 + conjunction + 1' construction and 4 has a '2 + 2' construction. The number words for 5 and 10 both contain a 'hand' morpheme and foot morphene for 15
Papuan Waris Sandaun 2, 5 digit tally 1,2,5  
Papuan Heyo Sandaun 2, 5 digit tally, 3=2+1 1, 2, 5 Digit tally system having 2 and 5 cyclic pattern
Papuan Chimbu Simbu 2, 5 digit tally to 5 1, 2, 5 2 and 5 cycles, digit tally, some data suggest 5 = '2+2+1' construction and 6 had a '2+2+2'
Papuan Bimin Western 2, 5, ? ? 1,2,5 numbers to five only, may be 10, system cannot decided
Papuan Zimakani Western 2, 5, ? 3=2+1, 4=2+2, digit tally? 1, 2, 5 2 cycle for 3=2+1, 4=2+2, but 5 has hand morphene suggesting with more data it might be a digit tally system
Papuan Aturu Western 2, 5 ? digit tally 1,2,5 2 cycle, probably 5 and digit tally system
Papuan Kamula Western 2, 5 ? digit tally? 1,2,5,10 2 cycle, little data
Papuan Ari-Waruna Western 2, 5 digit tally 6=x+1, 7=x+2 , 8=x+2+1, 9=x+2+2? 1, 2, 5, 10 2, 5 MAY BE DIGIT TALLY
Papuan Domu Central 2', 5, 10 6 to 9 is 5+n where n = 1 to 4 1, 2, 3, 5 modified 2 cycle with distinct numeral for 3 but 4=2+2, 5 cycle with 6 to 9 being 5 + n where n is 1 to 4. 10 cycle suggest by one ten for 10 which is unusual for a Papuan system
Papuan Benabena Eastern Highlands 2, 5, 10 6 to 9 = 5 + n 1, 2, 5, 20? or 1, 2, 5, 10 2, 5 cycle with 10 used for building with hand and feet morphemes,
Papuan Lilau Madang 2', 5, 10 digital tally,3=2+1 1,2,4,5,10 modified 2 cycle with 5 cycle and digit tally system apparently
Papuan Koita Central 2, 5, 10, 100, 1000 8=10-2?. 9=10-1? 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 10, 100, 1000 2, 5, 10, 100 cycles are unusual with little influence from Motu except for words for 100 and 1000
Papuan Gants Madang 2, 5, 10, ?, 20 ? digit tally? 1,2,5,10,20 2, 5, 20 cycles forming a digit tally system
Papuan Siane Eastern Highlands 2, 5; 2', 5 --; 4=2+2 1, 2, 5 ; 1, 2, 3, 5 2 cycle or modified 2 cycle with hand used for keeping track
Papuan Daga Central 2', 5, 20 6 to 9 is 5 + n where n is 1 to 4 1, 2, 3, 5, 10  
Papuan Sulka East New Britain 2, 5, 20 3 = 2 + 1, 4 = 2 + 2 1, 2, 5, 20 2, 5, 20 cycles with two groups of 20 for 40. 3 = 2+1 4 = 2+2
Papuan Sulka East New Britain 2, 5, 20 3 = 2 + 1, 4 = 2 + 2 1, 2, 5, 20 2, 5, 20 cycles with two groups of 20 for 40. 3 = 2+1 4 = 2+2
Papuan Abelem East Sepik 2', 5, 20 4=2+2, digit tally 1, 2, 3, 4?, 5 3 cycle in some data, others indicate a modified 2 cycle, then digit tally cycles of 5 and 20
Papuan Urat East Sepik 2', 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 3, 5 Digit tally
Papuan Kombio East Sepik 2, 5, 20? digit tally 1, 2, 5 digit tally
Papuan Urimo East Sepik 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 5 Digit tally system with hand morphemes in 5 and 10, and hand and feet morphemes in 20
Papuan Alamblak East Sepik 2, 5, 20? digit tally 1, 2, 5 Two systems coexist with a body-part tally system. Men and women have different 29 cycle body-part tally systems using left arm to nose (men) and down right arm
Papuan Mandi East Sepik 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 5, 20  
Papuan Yate Eastern Highlands 2, 5, 20? -- 1, 2, 5, 20? 2, 5 cycles but not clear if 20 cycle
Papuan Fore Eastern Highlands 2, 5, 20 3=1+1+1; 4=2+2 1, 2, 5, 20 2, 5, 20 cycle system of digit tally system
Papuan Gahuku-Asaro Eastern Highlands 2, 5, 20 ? 3=2+1'; 6 to 9 = 5 + n 1,2, 2 cycle with hands and probably feet used to keep track
Papuan Usarufa Eastern Highlands 2', 5, 20 4=2+2; 6 to 9= x+n 1, 2, 3, 5, 20 modified 2 cycle with 5, 20 for digit tally system
Papuan Awa Eastern Highlands 2, 5, 20 4=2+2, 6 to 9 = x+n; 11 to 14 = y+n 1, 2, 3, 5, 20? 2, 5 20 cycle but also a numeral for 3. digit tally system
Papuan Gahuku-Asaro Eastern Highlands 2, 5, 20 ? 6 to 9= 5 + n 1, 2, 5, 20? 2 cycle with hands and probably feet used to keep track
Papuan Tairora Eastern Highlands 2, 5, 20 6 to 9 = 5 + n 1, 2, 5, 20 2, 5, 20 cycle of the digit tally kind
Papuan Gimi Eastern Highlands 2, 5, 20 6 to 9 = 5 + n 1, 2, 5, 20 2, 5, 20 cycle of digit tally system
Papuan Baruya Eastern Highlands 2, 5, 20 ? 6 to 9 = 5 + n 1, 2, 5, 20? Distinct words for male and female
Papuan Yagwoia Eastern Highlands 2, 5, 20 6 to 9 = 5 + n 1, 2, 5, 20 2, 5, 20 cycle system of digit tally kind
Papuan Binumarien Eastern Highlands 2, 5, 20 6 to 9 = 5 + n, n is complex 1, 2, 5, 20 2, 5, 20 cycle system of the digit tally
Papuan Agarabi Eastern Highlands 2, 5, 20 ? 6 to 9 = x + n 1, 2, 5 Hands and feet are used to keep track of tallying in a basic two-cycle system. 5 cycle implied Man or 20 brings a 20 cycle.
Papuan Musar Madang 2, 5, 20? digit tally 1,2 2 cycle but as a digit tally system it is implied that it has a 5, 20 cycles
Papuan Monumbo Madang 2, 5, 20 digit tally, 3=2+1, 4=2+2 1, 2, 5 digit tally system with 1, 2, 5 cycles
Papuan Domung Madang 2', 5, 20 digit tally, 4 = 2 + 2 1, 2, 3, 5 modified 2 cycle, 5, and 20 cycles in digit tally system
Papuan Isan Madang 2', 5, 20 digit tally, 4 = 2 + 2 1, 2, 3, 5 modified 2 cycle, 5 and 20 cycle with hand and foot morphemes used in this digit tally system
Papuan Ulingan Madang 2' ?, 5, 20 digit tally, 4=2+2? 1 to 5, 20 5, 10 cycle and possibly digit tally but no data beyond 10. Some data implies a modified 2 cycle
Papuan Gwedena Milne Bay 2, 5, 20 3=2+1, 4=2+2, 10=5+5 1, 2, 5, 20 2, 5, 20 with 10 having a hand morpheme,
Papuan Jimajima Milne Bay 2', 5, 20 7=x+2, 8=x+3 1 to 3, 5, 20 modified two cycle, 5 and 20 cycles. 9 may be x+2+2 as a pattern for numbers between 6 and 9 as x + number used between 1 and 4
Papuan Agaataha Morobe 2' ?, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 3, 4?, 5 digit tally with 2 cycle but 4 being x + x where x is not 2. hand morpheme used in 5, 10, 15 but foot morpheme appears in 20 (not 15)
Papuan Nakama Morobe 2 ?, 5, 20 ? digit tally 1, 2, 3?,4?, 5, 20 5, 20 cycle system with possible 2 cycle
Papuan Weri Morobe 2', 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 4, 5, 20 2', 5, 20 cycles in digit tally system with use of hand and feet morphemes
Papuan Irumu Morobe 2, 5, 20 ? digit tally 1, 2, 5 2, 5 and implied 20 cycle digit tally system
Papuan Waffa Morobe 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 5 2, 5, 20 cycle digit tally system with variation in the word for 5 as 5th finger or hands half
Papuan Safeyoka Morobe 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 5 2, 5, 20 cycle system forming a digit tally system
Papuan Kamasa Morobe 2, 5 ?, 20 ? digit tally? 1, 2, 5? 2 numerals only provided
Papuan Kawatsa Morobe 2, 5 ?, 20 ? digit tally 1, 2, 5? Insufficient data to confirm more than the 2 cycle but seems to have a 5 and 20 cycle not necessarily using hand morphemes
Papuan Menya Morobe 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 5 2, 5, 20 cycles in a digit tally system
Papuan Nek Morobe 2, 5, 20 ? digit tally 1, 2, 5, 20 Uses 'hand' and 'leg' morpheme
Papuan Numanggang Morobe 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 5, 20 Digit tally uses 'hand' morpheme
Papuan Nimi Morobe 2, 5, 20 ? digit tally 1, 2, 5, 20 2, 5, 20 digit tally system
Papuan Wantoat Morobe 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 5, 20 2, 5, 20 cycles for digit tally with use of hand morpheme in 5 to 19, man complete for 20
Papuan Suena Morobe 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 5, 20  
Papuan Yekora Morobe 2', 5, 20 digit tally, 3=2+1 1, 2, 4, 5, 20 modified 2 cycle with 5 and 20 cycle in digit tally, use of hand, foot and man morphemes
Papuan Zia Morobe 2', 5, 20 digit tally, 3=2+1 1, 2, 4, 5, 20 2', 5, 20 cycle digit tally system with meaning of 4 and addition for 3 (2+x) are unsure
Papuan Kinalakna Morobe 2, 5, 20 ? digit tally; 3 = 2+1, 4=2+2 1, 2, 5 This digit tally system uses 1 and 2 to give 3 and 4. Both 5 and 10 contain a 'hand' morpheme. The number words for 11 to 20 each contain a 'leg' morpheme.
Papuan Kate Morobe 2, 5, 20 digit tally; 3=2+1. 4=2+2; 15 = 3 x 5? 1,2, 5, 20 This digit tally system may have developed 15 = 3 x 5 and 20 = 4 x 5
Papuan Migabac Morobe 2', 5, 20 digit tally; 4 = 2+2 1, 2, 3 This digit tally system has 5 and 10 having hand morphenes meaning hand one and hand two respectively. 15 is hands two, foot one while 20 is one whole man.
Papuan Weliki Morobe 2', 5, 20 ? digit tally, 4=2+2 1, 2, 3, 5 Digit tally system with 4 = 2 + 2. Hand finished for 5. 11, 15, 20 have leg morphs.
Papuan Ono Morobe 2', 5, 20 digit tally; 4 = 2 + 2 1, 2, 3, 5 This is a digit tallty system with 4 composed of 2.
5 is hand one, and 10 is hand two. 11 to 19 contain a leg morpheme and 20 is two hands and two legs in some data provided.
Papuan Komutu Morobe 2', 5, 20 digit tally; 4 = 2+2 1, 2, 3, 5, 20 Digit tally with hand morphs for 5 and 10 and leg morph for 11 and 15. Word for man included in 20.
Papuan Kumukio Morobe 2', 5, 20 digit tally, 4 = 2+ 2 1, 2, 3, 5, 20 This digit tallty system has number words for 5 and 10 containing a hand morpheme while 11 to 19 contain foot or leg morpheme and 20 is legs hands together. 40 is two men.
Papuan Nabak Morobe 2, 5, 20 digit tally, 4=2+2 1, 2, 3, 5, 20 modified 2 cycle, foot/hand 5 cycle, 20 cycle digit tally
Papuan Guhu-Samane Morobe 2', 5, 20 digit tally , 4=2+2 1, 2, 3, 5, 20 2', 5, 20 cycle system for digit tally
Papuan Guhu-Samane Morobe 2', 5, 20 digit tally, 4 = 2+2 1, 2, 3, 5, 20 2', 5, 20 cycle system for digit tally
Papuan Sialum Morobe 2', 5, 20 digit tally; 4 = 2+2; 6 to 9 = x+ n 1, 2, 3, 5 This digit tally system has x + n form for both 6 to 9 and 11 to 14. 5 is hand, 10 is hand two, 15 is hand 3 but 20 has a foot morpheme
Papuan Biangai Morobe 2', 5, 20 digit tally, 4=5-1 1, 2, 4?, 5, 20 2', 5, 20 cycle digit tally system with numbers 6 to 20 containing a hand morpheme and 11 to 20 having a foot morpheme as well. 20 also has the word man whole.
Papuan Munkip Morobe 2, 5, 20 ? digit tally, 5=2+2+1, 6=5+1 1, 2, 5 Uses both 'hand' and 'leg' morphemes explicitly. The system thus is a digit tally one with a (2,5) cyclic pattern and an implied 20- or 'man' cycle.
Papuan Korafe Oro 2', 5, 20 3 = 2 + 1, digit tally 1, 2, 3, 5, 20 modified 2 cycle, 5, 20 cycle digit tally system
Papuan Doriri Oro 2', 5, 20 3 = 2 + 1, digit tally 1, 2, 4, 5, 20 modified 2 cycle with 5 cycle digit tally system
Papuan Abau Sandaun 2, 5, 20   1,2,4?  
Papuan Abau Sandaun 2, 5, 20   1,2,4?  
Papuan Kayik Sandaun 2, 5, 20 6 to 9 = 5 + x + n where n=1 to 4 1, 2, 5, 20 The Kayik system is a digit-tally one with a (2,5,20) cyclic pattern.
Papuan Alu Sandaun 2, 5, 20 ? digit tally 1, 2, 5 Digit tally using arm and leg morphemes, with 2 and 5 cycle and implied 20 cycle
Papuan Mikaru (Daribi) Simbu 2', 5, 20 6 may be 2+2+2, other patterns for 6 to 9 1, 2, 3 Number words for 1,2,3; 4 has '2+2' construction. 5 is 'thumb' Variations for numbers 6 to 9. 6 may be '2+2+2', 7 a hand plus 2. 10 is 2 thumbs
11 to 19 contain leg morphemes, 40 is 2 men or 2 x 20
Papuan Chuave Simbu 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 3, 5 2 and 5 cycle with use of hand and leg morphemes and some simplifying similar to Chimbu
Papuan Chimbu Simbu 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1,2,5 2 and 5 cycles, digit tally, some data suggest 5 = '2+2+1' construction and 6 had a '2+2+2'
Papuan Chimbu Simbu 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1,2,5 2 and 5 cycles, digit tally, some data suggest 5 = '2+2+1' construction and 6 had a '2+2+2'
Papuan Nomane Simbu 2, 5, 20 digit tally , 4 = 2+2 1, 2, 5, 20 A finger-and-toe tally-system with a (2,5,20) cyclic pattern. The first four number words have the structure 1,2,2+1',2+2 (or 2'+2) where the primed numerals are variants.
Papuan Chimbu Simbu 2, 5, 20 ? digit tally to 5 1, 2, 5 2 and 5 cycles, digit tally, some data suggest 5 = '2+2+1' construction and 6 had a '2+2+2'
Papuan Chimbu Simbu 2, 5, 20 ? digit tally to 5 1, 2, 5 2 and 5 cycles, digit tally, some data suggest 5 = '2+2+1' construction and 6 had a '2+2+2'
Papuan Bainapi Western 2, 5, 20 ? digit tally? 1,2,10 2 cycle with 5=2+2+1, but ten has a hand morphene included
Papuan Idi Western 2, 5, 20 ? digit tally, 3=2+1, 4=2+2 1,2, 5 Digit tally system
Papuan Gogodala Western 2', 5, 20 digit tally, 4=2+2 1, 2, 3, 5 4=2+2, morphene for hand appears in word for 5, 10 and 20 but word for man is not used with the meaning being hands and feet complete.
Papuan Nii Western Highlands 2', 5, 20 ? digit tally 1, 2, (4), 5 5 digit tally system
Papuan Maring Western Highlands 2, 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 5 The digit tally system has numbers to 5 based on 2 and 1. Hand and foot are used as appropriate in the words for 5, 10, 15, 20. It has cycles (2, 5, 20).
Papuan Waghi Western Highlands 2, 5, 20 ? digit tally, combinations of 2 and 1 to 5; hand+n for some sources 1, 2, 4, (7) The words link to fingers and toes. 5 was a combination of 2 and 1 or half the hands.
Papuan Yabiyufa Eastern Highlands 2, 5, 20 ?,100 6 to 9 = 5 + n 1, 2, 5, 20?, 100 2, 5 cycles with a morpheme plus 1 to 4 for 6 to 9, remaining data is less clear for 20 but indication of 100, with hundreds following
Papuan Kamano Eastern Highlands 2, 5, 20 ?; 2' ,5, 20 ................. 4=2+2 1, 2, 5, 20?; 1, 2, 3, 5, 20? Hands and feet are used to keep tally in the basically 2 cycle system
Papuan Purari Gulf 2', 5 , 20?, 3? digit tally, 6=3+3, 7=3+3+1, 8=3+3+2 1, 2, 3, 5 body tally, modified 2 cycle and some 7 = 3+3+1 etc indicating a 3 cycle as part of a digit tally system
Papuan Sakam Morobe 2, 5, 22 digit tally (nostrils tallied) 1, 2, 3, 5, (11, 12) Digit tally system incorporating the tallying of both nostrils so that 22 rather than 20 tally-points are employed.
Papuan Maiwa Milne Bay 2, 5 or 2, 5, 20 3=2+1, 4=2+2 or 5-1, 7=5+2 1, 2, 5, 20? 2, 5, 20 cycles
Papuan Narak Western Highlands 2, 5 or 2, 5, 20 digit tally, 2, 2+1, 2+2 or 2+1+1, 1, 2, 5 3 and 4 are combinations of 1 and 2. Five and 10 has a hand morphene
Papuan Kwanga East Sepik 2', 5 or 5 digit tally 1, 2, 3, 5, (6); 1 to 5 digit tally, two systems
Papuan Hunjara Oro 2, 5 or 5 4 = 5 - 1, digit tally 1, 2, 5 5 cycle, 4=5-1, possible modified 2 cycle
Papuan Fuyuge Central 2 or 2, 5 7=5+2, 8=5+2+1, 9=5+2+2 with 5 cycle 1, 2 or 1, 2, 5 Both a 2 cycle and 2, 5 cycle systems given. With the 5 cycle, 7=5+2, 8=5+2+1, 9=5+2+2
Papuan Urii Morobe 2 or 2', 5? digit tally 1, 2, 3? Unusual system with a possible 3 cycle as well as 2 cycle
Papuan Purari Gulf 23 body-part tally 1 to 12 body tally, modified 2 cycle and some 7 = 3+3+1 etc indicating a 3 cycle as part of a digit tally system
Papuan Moresada Madang 23 body-part tally 1 to 12 23 cycle body-part tally system
Papuan Kalam Madang 23 body-part tally 1 to 12 A body-part tally system with a 23- cycle, the symmetrical mid-point of the cycle being tallied at 12 at a point at a base of the throat. The left-hand side of the body and then the symmetrical right-hand counterparts are employed. The fingers using their names are tallied first and then the wrist (6), lower arm (7), elbow (8), upper arm (9), shoulder (10), and collar-bone (11).
Papuan Murupi Madang 23 body-part tally 1 to 12 23- cycle body-part tally one (as is common with language groups possessing body-parts systems).
Starting with the small finger of the left hand and, continuing with the brachial parts between their joints and the joints themselves, they go over the collar bone to the breast bone as the crossing point and then to the right side thus ending with the small finger of the right hand.
Papuan Yuri Sandaun 23 body parts 1 to 12  
Papuan Orokolo Gulf 27 body part tally 1 to 14 body part tally of 27 parts with modification to accommodate introduced decimal system, abandoning at 10
Papuan Telefol Sandaun 27 body parts 1 to 14 Body parts system of 27 parts
Papuan Tifal Sandaun 27 body parts 1 to 14 Body parts tally system with 27 parts
Papuan Oksapmin Sandaun 27 body parts 1 to 14 Body parts counting system of 27 parts with an additional 2 cycle counting system
Papuan Hewa Southern Highlands 27 body-part tally system 1 to 14 27 part body-part tally system
Papuan Hewa Southern Highlands       27 part body-part tally system
Papuan Sanio East Sepik 27, separate 2 cycle body-part tally 1 to 14 Body-part tally with 27 cycle points with nose as centre symmetry point. A separate 2 cycle numeral system too.
Papuan Ipili Enga 28 body-part tally 1 to 28 27 body-parts are used with some parts between 6 and 14 and 15 to 22 having the names of the body parts (i.e. not the digits of the hands). The nose is the central number. 28 is man or "pondo" in both dialects. A second set of words could be ordinal numbers rather than cardinal numbers in both dialects
Papuan Alamblak East Sepik 29 body-part tally 1 to 15 Two systems coexist with a body-part tally system. Men and women have different 29 cycle body-part tally systems using left arm to nose (men) and down right arm
Papuan Miriam Western 29? or 25? body part tally 1 to 16 Body-part tally system and a 2 cycle system. 4 = 2+2, 5 = 2+2+1
Papuan Abelem East Sepik 3 4=3+1, 5=3+2 1, 2, 3, 6 3 cycle in some data, others indicate a modified 2 cycle, then digit tally cycles of 5 and 20
Papuan Bine Western 3, also 2 and hybrid 5=3+2 1, 2, 3 3 cycle. Older body-part system. Also some 2 cycle and hybrid 2 and 3 cycle data
Papuan Gende Madang 31 body-part tally 1 to 16 A body-part system
Papuan Gende Madang 31 body-part tally 1 to 16 A body-part system
Papuan Fasu Southern Highlands (35) 35 body-part tally 1 to 18 Symmetric 35 body-part tally system
Papuan Kewa Southern Highlands (35), (68) body-part tally 1 to 18 48 body-part tally system , 47 body-part system, 4 or 5 cycle system used as well as the body-part tally
Papuan Foe Southern Highlands (37) 37 body-part tally 1 to 19 37 body-part tally system
Papuan Boiken East Sepik 4 5=4+1, 6=4+2 1 to 4 4 cycle in island dialects but rest are digit tally systems
Papuan Vanimo Sandaun 4 8=4x2 1 to 4 4 cycle system with 8=2x4
Papuan Kewa Southern Highlands 4 8=2 x 4, 12 = 3 x 4 1 to 4, 5 48 body-part tally system , 47 body-part system, 4 or 5 cycle system used as well as the body-part tally
Papuan Wiru Southern Highlands 4 body part tally and c cycle with 5=4+1, 8=2x4 1 to 23?, 45? ; 1 to 4 Body part tally, probably of 23 parts and a 4 cycle system
Papuan Hagen Western Highlands 4, 28 cycle unit + n 1 to 4, 8, 4-cycle units Cycle of 8 dominates but some use of 10 in some data sources, as used in pig feasts. Remnants of 2 and 4 cycles. Counting from small left finger bending fingers down, then after fingers, use right hand fingers before 2 thumbs. Gawigl (Kaugel) source is more straightforward and based on cycles of 4 and 28.
Papuan Mendi Southern Highlands 4, 48 4-cycle units from 9 to 48 1 to 8, cycle units 4 cycle unit system within a 48 cycle systems beginning at 9, modified body-part system with influences of Kewa 4 unit cycles; also counted in pairs and quartets
Papuan Mendi Southern Highlands 4, 48 body-part tally 1 to 20 4 cycle unit system within a 48 cycle systems beginning at 9, modified body-part system with influences of Kewa 4 unit cycles; also counted in pairs and quartets
Papuan Ambasi Oro 4 ?, 5 digit tally 1 to 5 5 cycle but also a possible 4 cycle system as 5=4+1 and 6=4+2 in one set of data
Papuan Rawo Sandaun 4, 5 8=4x2, 9=4x2+1, 10=5x2 (rawo 2) 1 to 4 and 1 to 5 (Rawo 2) There is a distinct word for 5, i.e. 'mihu' or (in one case) 'nukambi'. Thereafter the 4-cycle structure is displaced by a 5-cyclic pattern so that 6 is `5 + 1', 7 is '5 + 2', and so on. Thus, a 4-cycle structure in which numbers were tallied on the fingers but not on the thumbs of the hands, has been displaced by a 5-cycle system in which fingers and thumbs are used, i.e. the usual digit-tally system.
Papuan Wutung Sandaun 4, 5 8=x+3, 9=x+4 1 to 5, 6? Hand morphene for 4, new word for 5, ten contains 5 morphene
Papuan Enga Enga 4, 60 cycle unit +n, with n= 1 to 3 1 to 8 (4-cycle units to 60) Data from different sources. Initially there were sequences of cycles of 4 with each sequence given a name. It appears to be a modified 60-cycle system. Early data suggests a body-part tallying system with 12 as nose. Analysis is difficult due to its use now mainly in infrequent ceremonies A power of two beginning with cycles of 2, 4, and 8 noted.
Papuan Enga Enga 4, 60 finger-count 1 to 10 Data from different sources. Initially there were sequences of cycles of 4 with each sequence given a name. It appears to be a modified 60-cycle system. Early data suggests a body-part tallying system with 12 as nose. Analysis is difficult due to its use now mainly in infrequent ceremonies A power of two beginning with cycles of 2, 4, and 8 noted.
Papuan Kewa Southern Highlands 47 body-part tally 1 to 24 48 body-part tally system , 47 body-part system, 4 or 5 cycle system used as well as the body-part tally
Papuan Doromu Central 5 4=2+2, 6=5+1 1,2, 3, 5 2, 5 cycle with one dialect recent data showing 10 and also 4 = 5-1 whereas in other dialects 4 = 2+2
Papuan Kopar East Sepik 5 ? ? 1 to 5, 10 Insufficient data to confirm 5 cycle
Papuan Yerakai East Sepik 5 digit tally 1 to 5  
Papuan Watam East Sepik 5 ? digit tally? 1 to 5 Digit tally probably as 10 has a hand morpheme
Papuan Bungain East Sepik 5, ? digit tally, 6 to 9 : 5 + n ; n = 1 to 4 1 to 5 Digit tally
Papuan Kairi Gulf 5 digit tally 1 to 5 Digit tally with 5 cycle
Papuan Degenan Madang 5 ? ? 1 to 5 numerals for 1 to 5 but insufficient data to decide counting system
Papuan Male Madang 5, ? 10 = 5 x 2 1 to 5 5 cycle but not clear of remaining data
Papuan Male Madang 5, ? 10 = 5 x 2 1 to 5 5 cycle but not clear of remaining data
Papuan Breri Madang 5 digit tally 1 to 5 5 cycle, digit tally system
Papuan Mugil Madang 5 digit tally 1 to 5 words for 1 to 4 and 5 contains a thumb morpheme, no data beyond 10 to confirm digit tally system
Papuan Rempi Madang 5 digit tally 1 to 5 5 cycle digit tally system
Papuan Amele Madang 5 ? digit tally 1 to 5 Basic data indicates a 5 cycle but not sufficient to confirm digit tally system
Papuan Kamba Madang 5 digit tally 1 to 5, 6 ? 5 cycle with thumb morpheme used for 5 but insufficient data to confirm it is a digit tally system
Papuan Bunabun Madang 5 digit tally 1 to 6 5 cycle with digit tally system
Papuan Saki Madang 5 ? digital tally 1 to 5,(?) Insufficient data to confirm 5 cycle and digit tally system
Papuan Sene Morobe 5 digit tally 1 to 5 5 cycle, little data to confirm digit tally
Papuan Ufim Morobe 5 digit tally, hands only 1 to 5 5 cycle system with numerals for 1 to 5. 10, 15 and 20 are respectively 2x5, 3x5, 4x5
Papuan Sene Morobe 5 digit tallyt 1 to 5 5 cycle, little data to confirm digit tally
Papuan Binandere Oro 5 4 = 5 - 1, 10 = 5 x 2 1, 2, 3, 5 5 cycle system with 4 = 5 - 1, 10 = 5 x 2
Papuan Notu Oro 5 digit tally 1, 2, 3, 5 unclear whether there is a 4 or 5 cycle in addition to a 2 cycle
Papuan Biaka Sandaun 5 10=5+5 1 to 5  
Papuan Gizra Western 5 digit tally, may have body part 1 to 5 probably digit tally but may be body part
Papuan Kwale Central 5, 10 6 to 9 are 5 + n where n=1 to 4 1 to 5, 10 5, 10 cycle where no 2 or 20 cycle is present. Expected influence of the neighbouring Austronesian language. 5 cycle is still evident.
Papuan Magi Central 5, 10 6 to 9 is 5 + n where n is 1 to 4 1 to 5, 10 System seems to have undergone change under Austronesian influence to 10, 100 cycle. 10 is numeral from Sinagoro. Trading influence causing decimalisation is likely and counting in fours.
Papuan Baining East New Britain 5, 10 6 to 9: 5 + n 1 to 5, 10 5 and 10 cycle with 9 to 10 being 5 plus 1 to 4. Different data for Umalot dialect
Papuan Kapriman East Sepik 5, 10 ? 1 to 5, 10  
Papuan Murik East Sepik 5, 10 20=10x2, 30=10x3 6 to 9 = morph+1 to 4 1 to 5, 10 decades but 20 has a man morpheme
Papuan Nagovisi North Solomons (5, 10) 6 to 9 = 1 towards 10 , 2 towards 10etc 1 to 5, 10 Noun classifiers and suffixes provide a complex web of words for numbers depending on the classifier used. 6 to 10 are expresses as 1 towards 10, 2 towards 10 etc. Decades are clear. This Papuan system has cycles of 5, 10.
Papuan Siwai North Solomons 5, 10 6 to 9= n to 10 1 to 5, 10 Noun classifiers are used so there are different words for 1 to 4 depending on the classifier. Decades follow a similar pattern to numbers to 10 in that 6 to 9 are given as 1 towards 10, 2 towards 10 while 60 is 10 towards 100.
Papuan Eivo North Solomons 5, 10 7 to 9 = 5 + n 1 to 5, (6), 10 Probable 5, 10 cycle system with hand morpheme for 5
Papuan Pele-Ata West New Britain 5, 10, 100 6 to 9: x + n 1 to 5, 10, 100 5 and 10 and 100 cycles with 6 to 9 being 5 plus 1 to 4, regular decades 10 x n where n is 1 to 9.
A word for 100 follows regular 100s such as 100 two and 1000 is hundred ten
Papuan Nasioi North Solomons 5, 10, 100, 1000 6 to 9 = 5 + n 1 to 5, 10, (50), 100, 1000 Noun classifiers and suffixes provide a complex web of words for numbers depending on the classifier used. Decades are clear and words for 100 and 1000 etc.
5, 10, 100, 1000 cycles
Papuan Nasioi North Solomons 5, 10, 100, 1000 6 to 9 = 5 + n 1 to 5, 10, (50), 100, 1000 Noun classifiers and suffixes provide a complex web of words for numbers depending on the classifier used. Decades are clear and words for 100 and 1000 etc.
5, 10, 100, 1000 cycles
Papuan Nasioi North Solomons 5, 10, 100, 1000 6 to 9 = 5 + n 1 to 5, 10, (50), 100, 1000 Noun classifiers and suffixes provide a complex web of words for numbers depending on the classifier used. Decades are clear and words for 100 and 1000 etc.
5, 10, 100, 1000 cycles
Papuan Rotokas North Solomons 5, 10, 100, 1000 6 to 9 = n + x; 30=3 x 10 1 to 5, 10, 100, 1000 After reaching 10, a base 10 system. Numerals 1 to 5 are add to a word to get 6 to 9. 11 is 10 plus 1 and 15 is ten and five. Decades have both 1 to 5 and 10 morphs. There is a special word for 100 and for 1000.
Papuan Taulil East New Britain 5, 10 ?, 20 ? 6 to 9: 5 + n 1 to 5, 10, 20 5 and 10 cycle initially but displacement by the Tolai words for 6 to 9 as numerals rather than as 5 + n where n is 1 to 4 as Tolai gives. Now 10 cycle system
Papuan Chambri East Sepik 5, 10, 20 digit tally . 8 = 5+3, 9=4+5 1 to 6, 10, 20 Digit tally system with numerals up to 6 and for 10. However, hand morpheme used for 7 to 9 and leg for 11 to 19. One man is used for 20 and following numbers to 39; 40 is two men
Papuan Pay Madang 5, 10, 20 digital tally 1 to 5,10,20 5, 10, 20 cycles form digit tally system
Papuan Pay Madang 5, 10, 20 digital tally 1 to 5,10,20 5, 10, 20 cycles form digit tally system
Papuan Kovai Morobe 5, 10, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 10, 15, 20 Whilst the system is a digit-tally one (the author's informants tallied the digits on the right hand first, the left hand next, then the right foot and finally the left foot) there appear to be distinct words for both 10 and 15; the word for 20 does not translate as 'man'.
Papuan Sawos East Sepik 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5 digit tally with hand one, hand two, for 5 and 10 respectively
Papuan Iatmul East Sepik 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5 Digit tally with earlier data indicating hand and foot morphemes but later data indicates that 11 to 19 fit into the pattern of numerals like 1 to 9
Papuan Iatmul East Sepik 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5 Digit tally with earlier data indicating hand and foot morphemes but later data indicates that 11 to 19 fit into the pattern of numerals like 1 to 9
Papuan Biwat East Sepik 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5 Digit tally with hand and feet morphemes for numbers between 5 and 20
Papuan Gapun East Sepik 5, 20 ? digit tally 1 to 5 Digit tally probably
Papuan Aion East Sepik 5, 20 ? digit tally 1 to 5  
Papuan Kaunga East Sepik 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 digit tally, 4=2+2?
Papuan Mayo East Sepik 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 hands and toes used to reach 20, man
Papuan Kwoma East Sepik 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20  
Papuan Ngala East Sepik 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20  
Papuan Boiken East Sepik 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 4 cycle in island dialects but rest are digit tally systems
Papuan Angoram East Sepik 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 digit tally but not using hand, leg or man morphemes
Papuan Maramba East Sepik 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 Digit tally
Papuan Buna East Sepik 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 Digit tally
Papuan Kambot East Sepik 5, 20 ? digit tally?, 10 = 5x2? 1 to 5 Digit tally probably with 10=5x2
Papuan Bahinemo East Sepik 5, 20 digit tally, 7 = 5+2 etc 1 to 5, 20 Digit tally without any 2 cycle, hand and leg morphemes
Papuan Manambu East Sepik 5, 20 digit tally modified, 6 to 9 = morph+ 1 to 4, teens=2x5+1 to 9 1 to 5, 20 digit tally but no hand or leg morphemes , 6 to 9 = morph+ 1 to 4, teens=2x5+1 to 9
Papuan Auyana Eastern Highlands 5, 20 6 to 9 = x + n 1 to 5, 20 5, 20 cycles for digit tally system
Papuan Bom Madang 5, 20 ? digit tally 1 to 5 Digit tally with 5, 20 cycles. The 5+n where n is 1 to 4 and hand morpheme used in 5 and 10 with a foot morpheme in 20
Papuan Bom Madang 5, 20 ? digit tally 1 to 5 Digit tally with 5, 20 cycles. The 5+n where n is 1 to 4 and hand morpheme used in 5 and 10 with a foot morpheme in 20
Papuan Songum Madang 5, 20 ? digit tally 1 to 5, ? Little data but indication of a 5 cycle system
Papuan Siroi Madang 5, 20 ? digit tally 1 to 5 5, 20 cycles digit tally system
Papuan Saep Madang 5, 20 ? digit tally 1 to 5 5 cycle but insufficient data for more possible cycles
Papuan Nahu Madang 5, 20 ? digit tally 1 to 5 5 cycle but insufficient data for more possible cycles
Papuan Kolom Madang 5, 20 ? digit tally 1 to 5 5, 20 cycles for digit tally system with use of hand and man morphemes
Papuan Yabong Madang 5, 20, ? digit tally 1 to 5 5 and possible 20 cycle system
Papuan Nekgini Madang 5, 20 ? digit tally 1 to 5 5 and possible 20 cycle system
Papuan Neko Madang 5, 20 ? digit tally 1 to 5 5 and possible 20 cycle system
Papuan Mebu Madang 5, 20 ? digit tally 1 to 5 5 cycle but insufficient data to say more
Papuan Bonkiman Madang 5, 20 ? digit tally 1 to 5 5 cycle system but insufficient data beyond 10 to determine further analysis
Papuan Panim Madang 5, 20 ? digit tally 1 to 5, 11 ? 20 5, 12, and 13 contain a thumb morpheme and a 5 cycle with insufficient data to confirm it is a digit tally system
Papuan Rawa Madang 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 5, 20 cycles digit tally system
Papuan Burum Morobe 5, 20 digit tally 1, 2, 3, 4?, 5, 20 Digit tally system
Papuan Yau Morobe 5, 20 ? digit tally 1 to 5, Digit tally system with 5 cycle and implied 20 cycle
Papuan Kube Morobe 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5 Digit-tally system with a basic numeral set (1,2,3): 4 contains a 'thumb' morpheme 'kewong' ('kembong') and has the gloss 'thumb without' or 'hand without the thumb'.
Papuan Komba Morobe 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 A typical digit tally system with 5 and 10 having hand morphs, 11 to 19 have foot morphs and 20 is one man
Papuan Kosorong Morobe 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 Digit tally and uses 'hand' and 'leg' morpheme
Papuan Yaknge Morobe 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 Digit tally, uses 'hand' and 'leg' morpheme
Papuan Tobo Morobe 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 Uses 'hand' and 'leg' morpheme
Papuan Mesem Morobe 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 5, 20 cycle system with hand used to suggest digit tally
Papuan Dedua Morobe 5, 20 digit tally; 4 = 2+2 1 to 5, 20 5, 20 digit tally system
Papuan Selepet Morobe 5, 20 digit tally; 6 to 9 = 5 + n; 1 to 5, 20 This is a standard digit tally system with 5 as hand half; 10 as all of only the hands; 11 to 15 have a foot morphene, with 16 to 19 being 1, 2 etc at the other foot.; 40 is 2 men
Papuan Timbe Morobe 5, 20 digit tally; 6 to 9 = x + n 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 20 The pattern is regular for this digit tally system with hand or thumb morph in five; 11 to 19 have a foot-on morph and 20 has a man morph
Papuan Momare Morobe 5, 20 digit tally; 6 to 9 = x+n with similar constructions. for other numbers 1 to 5, 20 This is a digit tally system; 6 to 9 = x+n with similar constructions. for other numbers e.g. 11 to 14
Papuan Momare Morobe 5, 20 digit tally; 6 to 9 = x+n with similar constructions. for other numbers 1 to 5, 20 This is a digit tally system; 6 to 9 = x+n with similar constructions. for other numbers e.g. 11 to 14
Papuan Onjob Oro 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5, 20 5, 20 digit tally system with hand and foot morphemes and clear pattern for 40, 60 as 2x20 and 3x20
Papuan Gidra Western 5, 20 digit tally 1 to 5 body part replaced by digit tally systems apparently
Papuan Gadsup Eastern Highlands 5, 20 or 2', 5, 20 6 to 9 = 5+n; 3=2+1 1 to 5, 20; 1, 2, 4, 5, 20 Hands and feet are used to keep track of tallying in a basic two-cycle system. Man or 20 brings a 20 cycle.
Papuan Morawa Central 5 or 2', 5 6 to 9 is 5 + n where n = 1 to 4 1 to 5 or 1, 2, 4, 5  
Papuan Tonda Western 6 12=2x6, 18=3x6; counting yams? 1 to 6 6 cycle system with 12=2x6 and 18=3x6, yams also placed in 6s for counting
Papuan Ndom West Papua 6, 18, 36 7 to 11 = 6+n where n=1 to 5, 12=6x2 1 to 6, 18, 36 6 cycle system with follow up words for 18 and 36. 72 and 108 are 36x2 and 36x3 respectively.
Papuan Kanum West Papua 6, 36 7 to 11=x+n where n=1 to 6, 12=2x6 or x+6 1 to 6, 36 6 cycle system with supercycle of 36. 72 and 108 are 36x2 and 36x3 respectively.
7 to 11=x+n where n=1 to 6, 12=2x6 or x+6, 18=3x6
Papuan Kewa Southern Highlands 68 body-part tally, 1 to 34, 48 body-part tally system , 47 body-part system, 4 or 5 cycle system used as well as the body-part tally
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